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One Hundred and Thirteenth Congress, Second Session

The Congress of the United States was created by Article I, section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787, providing that “All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."

The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789, in the Federal Hall in New York City. The membership then consisted of 20 Senators and 59 Representatives.*

* New York ratified the Constitution on July 26, 1788, but did not elect its Senators until July 15 and 16, 1789. North Carolina did not ratify the Constitution until November 21, 1789; Rhode Island ratified it on May 29, 1790.

Congressional Record

Proceedings of Congress are published in the Congressional Record, which is issued each day when Congress is in session. Publication of the Record began March 4, 1873. It was the first record of debate officially reported, printed, and published directly by the Federal Government. The Daily Digest of the Congressional Record, printed in the back of each issue of the Record, summarizes the proceedings of that day in each House and each of their committees and subcommittees, respectively. The Digest also presents the legislative program for each day and, at the end of the week, gives the program for the following week. Its publication was begun March 17, 1947.


Section 4 of Article I of the Constitution makes it mandatory that "The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year. . . ." Under this provision, also, the date for convening Congress was designated originally as the first Monday in December, "unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day." Eighteen acts were passed, up to 1820, providing for the meeting of Congress on other days of the year. From 1820 to 1934, however, Congress met regularly on the first Monday in December. In 1934 the 20th amendment changed the convening of Congress to January 3, unless Congress "shall by law appoint a different day." In addition, the President, according to Article II, section 3, of the Constitution "may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper. . . ."

Powers of Congress

Article I, section 8, of the Constitution defines the powers of Congress. Included are the powers to assess and collect taxes—called the chief power; to regulate commerce, both interstate and foreign; to coin money; to establish post offices and post roads; to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court; to declare war; and to raise and maintain an army and navy. Congress is further empowered "To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;" and "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."

Amendments to the Constitution

Another power vested in the Congress is the right to propose amendments to the Constitution, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary. Should two-thirds of the State legislatures demand changes in the Constitution, it is the duty of Congress to call a constitutional convention. Proposed amendments shall be valid as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures or by conventions of three-fourths of the States, as one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by Congress.

Prohibitions Upon Congress

Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution also imposes prohibitions upon Congress. "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." A bill of attainder or an ex post facto law cannot be passed. No export duty can be imposed. Ports of one State cannot be given preference over those of another State. "No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law. . . ." No title of nobility may be granted.

Rights of Members

According to section 6 of Article I, Members of Congress are granted certain privileges. In no case, except in treason, felony, and breach of the peace, can Members be arrested while attending sessions of Congress "and in going to and returning from the same. . . ." Furthermore, the Members cannot be questioned in any other place for remarks made in Congress. Each House may expel a Member of its body by a two-thirds vote.

Enactment of Laws

In order to become law, all bills and joint resolutions, except those proposing a constitutional amendment, must pass both the House of Representatives and the Senate and either be signed by the President or be passed over the President's veto by a two-thirds vote of both Houses of Congress. Section 7 of Article I states: "If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law." When a bill or joint resolution is introduced in the House, the usual procedure for its enactment into law is as follows: assignment to House committee having jurisdiction; if favorably considered, it is reported to the House either in its original form or with recommended amendments; if the bill or resolution is passed by the House, it is messaged to the Senate and referred to the committee having jurisdiction; in the Senate committee the bill, if favorably considered, may be reported in the form as received from the House, or with recommended amendments; the approved bill or resolution is reported to the Senate, and if passed by that body, is returned to the House; if one body does not accept the amendments to a bill by the other body, a conference committee comprised of Members of both bodies is usually appointed to effect a compromise; when the bill or joint resolution is finally approved by both Houses, it is signed by the Speaker (or Speaker pro tempore) and the Vice President (or President pro tempore or acting President pro tempore) and is presented to the President; and once the President's signature is affixed, the measure becomes a law. If the President vetoes the bill, it cannot become a law unless it is re-passed by a two-thirds vote of both Houses.

The Senate

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20510


President pro tempore Orrin G. Hatch
Majority Leader A. Mitch McConnell
Minority Leader Harry M. Reid

Secretary of the Senate Julie E. Adams
Sergeant at Arms Frank J. Larkin
Secretary for the Majority Laura C. Dove
Secretary for the Minority Gary B. Myrick
Chaplain Barry C. Black
Organizational Chart


The Senate comprises 100 Members, 2 from each State. Senators are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. There are three classes of Senators, and a new class is elected every 2 years. Senators were originally chosen by the State legislatures. The 17th amendment, which became part of the Constitution in 1913, made their election a function of the people.

A Senator must be a resident of the State that he or she represents. A Senator also must be at least 30 years of age and have been a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years.


The Vice President of the United States is the Presiding Officer of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the duties are taken over by a President pro tempore, elected by that body, or someone designated by the President pro tempore.

The positions of Senate Majority and Minority Leader have been in existence only since the early years of the 20th century. Leaders are elected at the beginning of each new Congress by a majority vote of the Senators in their political party. In cooperation with their party organizations, Leaders are responsible for the design and achievement of a legislative program. This involves managing the flow of legislation, expediting noncontroversial measures, and keeping Members informed regarding proposed action on pending business. Each Leader serves as an ex officio member of his party's policymaking and organizational bodies and is aided by an assistant floor leader (whip) and a party secretary.

The Secretary of the Senate, elected by vote of the Senate, performs the duties of the Presiding Officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President and pending the election of a President pro tempore. The Secretary is the custodian of the seal of the Senate, draws requisitions on the Secretary of the Treasury for moneys appropriated for the compensation of Senators, officers, and employees, and for the contingent expenses of the Senate, and is empowered to administer oaths to any officer of the Senate and to any witness produced before it. The Secretary's executive duties include certification of extracts from the Journal of the Senate; the attestation of bills and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions; in impeachment trials, issuance, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, of all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate; and certification to the President of the United States of the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

The Sergeant at Arms, elected by vote of the Senate, serves as the executive, chief law enforcement, and protocol officer and is the principal administrative manager for most support services in the Senate. As executive officer, the Sergeant at Arms has custody of the Senate gavel; enforces Senate rules and regulations as they pertain to the Senate Chamber, the Senate wing of the Capitol, and the Senate office buildings; and subject to the Presiding Officer, maintains order on the Senate floor, Chamber, and galleries. As chief law enforcement officer of the Senate, the Sergeant at Arms is authorized to maintain security in the Capitol and all Senate buildings, as well as to protect Senators; to arrest and detain any person violating Senate rules; and to locate absentee Senators for a quorum. The Sergeant at Arms serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board and as its chairman each odd year. As protocol officer, the Sergeant at Arms escorts the President and other heads of state or official guests of the Senate who are attending official functions in the Capitol; makes arrangements for funerals of Senators who die in office; and assists in planning the inauguration of the President and organizing the swearing-in and orientation programs for newly elected Senators.


The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 16 standing committees in the Senate. The standing committees of the Senate are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in each House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.

Standing Committees of the Senate
Senate Committee Room
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry SR328A
Appropriations S128
Armed Services SR228
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs SD534
Budget SD624
Commerce, Science, and Transportation SD512
Energy and Natural Resources SD304
Environment and Public Works SD410
Finance SD219
Foreign Relations SD423
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions SD428
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs SD340
Judiciary SD224
Rules and Administration SR305
Small Business and Entrepreneurship SR428A
Veterans' Affairs SR412

Special Powers

Under the Constitution, the Senate is granted certain powers not accorded to the House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves certain Presidential appointments by majority vote, and treaties must be concurred in by a two-thirds vote.


Name State Room
Alexander, Lamar (R) Tennessee SD455
Ayotte, Kelly A. (R) New Hampshire SR144
Baldwin, Tammy (D) Wisconsin SH717
Barrasso, John A. (R) Wyoming SD307
Bennet, Michael F. (D) Colorado SR261
Blumenthal, Richard (D) Connecticut SH706
Blunt, Roy (R) Missouri SR260
Booker, Cory A. (D) New Jersey SD359
Boozman, John (R) Arkansas SH141
Boxer, Barbara (D) California SH112
Brown, Sherrod (D) Ohio SH713
Burr, Richard (R) North Carolina SR217
Cantwell, Maria (D) Washington SH511
Capito, Shelley Moore (R) West Virginia SR172
Cardin, Benjamin L. (D) Maryland SH509
Carper, Thomas R. (D) Delaware SH513
Casey, Robert P., Jr. (D) Pennsylvania SR393
Cassidy, Bill (R) Louisiana SH703
Coats, Daniel (R) Indiana SR493
Cochran, Thad (R) Mississippi SD113
Collins, Susan M. (R) Maine SD413
Coons, Christopher A. (D) Delaware SR127A
Corker, Bob (R) Tennessee SD425
Cornyn, John (R) Texas SH517
Cotton, Tom (R) Arkansas SR124
Crapo, Mike (R) Idaho SD239
Cruz, Ted (R) Texas SR404
Daines, Steve (R) Montana SH320
Donnelly, Joe (D) Indiana SH720
Durbin, Richard J. (D) Illinois SH711
Enzi, Michael B. (R) Wyoming SR379A
Ernst, Joni (R) Iowa SR111
Feinstein, Dianne (D) California SH331
Fischer, Deb (R) Nebraska SR454
Flake, Jeff (R) Arizona SR413
Franken, Al (D) Minnesota SH309
Gardner, Cory (R) Colorado SR354
Gillibrand, Kirsten E. (D) New York SR478
Graham, Lindsey (R) South Carolina SR290
Grassley, Chuck (R) Iowa SH135
Hatch, Orrin G. (R) Utah SH104
Heinrich, Martin (D) New Mexico SH303
Heitkamp, Heidi (D) North Dakota SH110
Heller, Dean (R) Nevada SH324
Hirono, Mazie K. (D) Hawaii SH330
Hoeven, John (R) North Dakota SR338
Inhofe, James M. (R) Oklahoma SR205
Isakson, Johnny (R) Georgia SR131
Johnson, Ron (R) Wisconsin SH328
Kaine, Tim (D) Virginia SR231
King, Angus S., Jr. (I) Maine SH133
Kirk, Mark S. (R) Illinois SH524
Klobuchar, Amy (D) Minnesota SH302
Lankford, James (R) Oklahoma SH316
Leahy, Patrick J. (D) Vermont SR437
Lee, Michael S. (R) Utah SR361A
Manchin, Joe, III (D) West Virginia SH306
Markey, Edward J. (D) Massachusetts SD255
McCain, John (R) Arizona SR218
McCaskill, Claire (D) Missouri SH730
McConnell, A. Mitch (R) Kentucky SR317
Menendez, Robert (D) New Jersey SH528
Merkley, Jeff (D) Oregon SH313
Mikulski, Barbara A. (D) Maryland SH503
Moran, Jerry (R) Kansas SD521
Murkowski, Lisa (R) Alaska SH709
Murphy, Christopher (D) Connecticut SH136
Murray, Patty (D) Washington SR154
Nelson, Bill (D) Florida SH716
Paul, Rand (R) Kentucky SR167
Perdue, David (R) Georgia SR383
Peters, Gary C. (D) Michigan SH724
Portman, Rob (R) Ohio SR448
Reed, Jack (D) Rhode Island SH728
Reid, Harry M. (D) Nevada SH522
Risch, James E. (R) Idaho SR483
Roberts, Pat (R) Kansas SH109
Rounds, Mike (R) South Dakota SH502
Rubio, Marco (R) Florida SR284
Sanders, Bernard (I) Vermont SD332
Sasse, Ben (R) Nebraska SR386A
Schatz, Brian (D) Hawaii SH722
Schumer, Charles E. (D) New York SH322
Scott, Tim (R) South Carolina SH520
Sessions, Jeff (R) Alabama SR326
Shaheen, Jeanne (D) New Hampshire SH506
Shelby, Richard C. (R) Alabama SR304
Stabenow, Debbie (D) Michigan SH731
Sullivan, Dan (R) Arkansas SH702
Tester, Jon (D) Montana SH311
Thune, John (R) South Dakota SD511
Tillis, Thom (R) North Carolina SD185
Toomey, Patrick J. (R) Pennsylvania SR248
Udall, Tom (D) New Mexico SH531
Vitter, David (R) Louisiana SH516
Warner, Mark R. (D) Virginia SR475
Warren, Elizabeth (D) Masschusetts SH317
Whitehouse, Sheldon (D) Rhode Island SH530
Wicker, Roger F. (R) Mississippi SD555
Wyden, Ron (D) Oregon SD221

Republicans are 54; Democrats are 44; and Independents are 2. The total number of Senators is 100. Please note: Senate.gov is a more up-to-date electronic source of information.

Sources of Information


The Senate's collections of ephemera, decorative art, graphic art, paintings, and sculpture can be viewed online.


Career Opportunities

Information on fellowships, internships, and job openings is available online.



Information on Senate committees is available online.


Contact a Senator

Phone numbers, postal addresses, and online forms are available for contacting a Senator.


An online list of States also provides web forms for contacting a Senator via email.



A Senate glossary is available online.



The Senate Historical Office has told the history of the Senate, from the First Federal Congress of 1789 through the early 21st century; explained its traditions; described the individuals who served in its Chamber, and examined the major issues that confronted these national leaders.


Legislation and Records

Research guides and resources are available online.



The Congressional Directory, the Senate Manual, and telephone directory for the U.S. Senate are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132.

https://www.gpo.gov/about/bookstore.htm | Email: mainbks@gpo.gov

Web Sites

More information on legislation and the Senate is available on Congress.gov and on the Government Publishing Office's Federal Digital System (FDsys) Web site.


The House of Representatives

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20515


Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy
Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi

Clerk Karen L. Haas
Sergeant at Arms Paul D. Irving
Chief Administrative Officer Will Plaster
Chaplain Patrick J. Conroy
Organizational Chart


The House of Representatives comprises 435 Representatives. The number representing each State is determined by population, but every State is entitled to at least one Representative. Members are elected by the people for 2-year terms, all terms running for the same period. Representatives must be residents of the State from which they are chosen. In addition, a Representative must be at least 25 years of age and must have been a citizen for at least 7 years.

A Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico (elected for a 4-year term) and Delegates from American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands complete the composition of the Congress of the United States. Delegates are elected for a term of 2 years. The Resident Commissioner and Delegates may take part in the floor discussions, but have no vote in the full House. They do, however, vote in the committees to which they are assigned.


The Presiding Officer of the House of Representatives, the Speaker, is elected by the House. The Speaker may designate any Member of the House to act in the Speaker's absence.

The House leadership is structured essentially the same as the Senate, with the Members in the political parties responsible for the election of their respective leader and whips.

The elected officers of the House of Representatives include the Clerk, the Sergeant at Arms, the Chief Administrative Officer, and the Chaplain.

The Clerk is custodian of the seal of the House and administers the primary legislative activities of the House. These duties include accepting the credentials of the Members-elect and calling the Members to order at the commencement of the first session of each Congress; keeping the Journal; taking all votes and certifying the passage of bills; and processing all legislation. Through various departments, the Clerk is also responsible for floor and committee reporting services; legislative information and reference services; the administration of House reports pursuant to House rules and certain legislation including the Ethics in Government Act and the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995; and the distribution of House documents. The Clerk is also charged with supervision of the offices vacated by Members due to death, resignation, or expulsion.

The Sergeant at Arms maintains the order of the House under the direction of the Speaker and is the keeper of the Mace. As a member of the U.S. Capitol Police Board, the Sergeant at Arms is the chief law enforcement officer for the House and serves as Board Chairman each even year. The ceremonial and protocol duties parallel those of the Senate Sergeant at Arms and include arranging the inauguration of the President of the United States, Joint Sessions of Congress, visits to the House of heads of state, and funerals of Members of Congress. The Sergeant at Arms enforces the rules relating to the privileges of the Hall of the House, including admission to the galleries, oversees garage and parking security of the House, and distributes all House staff identification cards.


The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 19 standing committees in the House of Representatives. The standing committees of the House of Representatives are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in the House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.

Standing Committees of the House of Representatives
House Committee Room
Agriculture 1301
Appropriations H305
Armed Services 2216
Budget 207
Education and the Workforce 2176
Energy and Commerce 2125
Ethics 1015
Financial Services 2129
Foreign Affairs 2170
Homeland Security H2-176
House Administration 1309
House Administration (Franking Office) 1216
Judiciary 2138
Natural Resources 1324
Oversight and Government Reform 2157
Rules H312
Rules (Minority) 1627
Science, Space, and Technology 2321
Small Business 2361
Transportation and Infrastructure 2165
Veterans' Affairs 335
Ways and Means 1102

Special Powers

The House of Representatives is granted the power of originating all bills for the raising of revenue. Both Houses of Congress act in impeachment proceedings, which, according to the Constitution, may be instituted against the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeachment, and the Senate has the sole power to try impeachments.

Representatives, Delegates, and Resident Commissioners

Name State (District) / Territory Room
Abraham, Ralph Lee (R) Louisiana (5) 417
Adams, Alma S. (D) North Carolina (12) 222
Aderholt, Robert B. (R) Alabama (4) 235
Aguilar, Pete (D) California (31) 1223
Allen, Rick W. (R) Georgia (12) 513
Amash, Justin (R) Michigan (3) 114
Amodei, Mark E. (R) Nevada (2) 332
Ashford, Brad (D) Nebraska (2) 107
Babin, Brian (R) Texas (36) 316
Barletta, Lou (R) Pennsylvania (11) 115
Barr, Andy (R) Kentucky (6) 1432
Barton, Joe (R) Texas (6) 2107
Bass, Karen (D) California (37) 408
Beatty, Joyce (D) Ohio (3) 133
Becerra, Xavier (D) California (34) 1226
Benishek, Dan (R) Michigan (1) 514
Bera, Ami (D) California (7) 1535
Beyer, Donald S., Jr. (D) Virginia (8) 431
Bilirakis, Gus M. (R) Florida (12) 2112
Bishop, Mike (R) Michigan (8) 428
Bishop, Rob (R) Utah (1) 123
Bishop, Sanford D., Jr. (D) Georgia (2) 2407
Black, Diane (R) Tennessee (6) 1131
Blackburn, Marsha (R) Tennessee (7) 2266
Blum, Rod (R) Iowa (1) 213
Blumenauer, Earl (D) Oregon (3) 1111
Bonamici, Suzanne (D) Oregon (1) 439
Bordallo, Madeleine Z. (D) Guam (Delegate) 2441
Bost, Mike (R) Illinois (12) 1440
Boustany, Charles W., Jr. (R) Louisiana (3) 1431
Boyle, Brendan F. (D) Pennsylvania (13) 118
Brady, Kevin (R) Texas (8) 301
Brady, Robert A. (D) Pennsylvania (1) 102
Brat, Dave (R) Virginia (7) 330
Bridenstine, Jim (R) Oklahoma (1) 216
Brooks, Mo (R) Alabama (5) 1230
Brooks, Susan W. (R) Indiana (5) 1505
Brown, Corrine (D) Florida (5) 2111
Brownley, Julia (D) California (26) 1019
Buchanan, Vern (R) Florida (16) 2104
Buck, Ken (R) Colorado (4) 416
Bucshon, Larry (R) Indiana (8) 1005
Burgess, Michael C. (R) Texas (26) 2336
Bustos, Cheri (D) Illinois (17) 1009
Butterfield, G.K. (D) North Carolina (1) 2305
Byrne, Bradley (R) Alabama (1) 119
Calvert, Ken (R) California (42) 2205
Capps, Lois (D) California (24) 2231
Capuano, Michael E. (D) Massachusetts (7) 1414
Cárdenas, Tony (D) California (29) 1510
Carney, John C., Jr. (D) Delaware (At Large) 1406
Carson, André (D) Indiana (7) 2453
Carter, Earl L. "Buddy" (R) Georgia (1) 432
Carter, John R. (R) Texas (31) 2110
Cartwright, Matt (D) Pennsylvania (17) 1419
Castor, Kathy (D) Florida (14) 205
Castro, Joaquin (D) Texas (20) 212
Chabot, Steve (R) Ohio (1) 2371
Chaffetz, Jason (R) Utah (3) 2236
Chu, Judy (D) California (27) 2423
Cicilline, David N. (D) Rhode Island (1) 2244
Clark, Katherine M. (D) Massachusetts (5) 1721
Clarke, Yvette D. (D) New York (9) 2351
Clawson, Curt (R) Florida (19) 228
Clay, W. Lacy (D) Missouri (1) 2428
Cleaver, Emanuel (D) Missouri (5) 2335
Clyburn, James E. (D) South Carolina (6) 242
Coffman, Mike (R) Colorado (6) 2443
Cohen, Steve (D) Tennessee (9) 2404
Cole, Tom (R) Oklahoma (4) 2467
Collins, Chris (R) New York (27) 1117
Collins, Doug (R) Georgia (9) 1504
Comstock, Barbara (R) Virginia (10) 226
Conaway, K. Michael (R) Texas (11) 2430
Connolly, Gerald E. (D) Virginia (11) 2238
Conyers, John, Jr. (D) Michigan (13) 2426
Cook, Paul (R) California (8) 1222
Cooper, Jim (D) Tennessee (5) 1536
Costa, Jim (D) California (16) 1314
Costello, Ryan A. (R) Pennsylvania (6) 427
Courtney, Joe (D) Connecticut (2) 2348
Cramer, Kevin (R) North Dakota (At Large) 1032
Crawford, Eric A. (R) Arkansas (1) 1711
Crenshaw, Ander (R) Florida (4) 2161
Crowley, Joseph (D) New York (14) 1436
Cuellar, Henry (D) Texas (28) 2209
Culberson, John Abney (R) Texas (7) 2372
Cummings, Elijah E. (D) Maryland (7) 2230
Curbelo, Carlos (R) Florida (26) 1429
Davis, Danny K. (D) Illinois (7) 2159
Davis, Rodney (R) Illinois (13) 1740
Davis, Susan A. (D) California (53) 1214
DeFazio, Peter A. (D) Oregon (4) 2134
DeGette, Diana (D) Colorado (1) 2368
Delaney, John K. (D) Maryland (6) 1632
DeLauro, Rosa L. (D) Connecticut (3) 2413
DelBene, Suzan K. (D) Washington (1) 318
Denham, Jeff (R) California (10) 1730
Dent, Charles W. (R) Pennsylvania (15) 2211
DeSantis, Ron (R) Florida (6) 308
DeSaulnier, Mark (D) California (11) 327
DesJarlais, Scott (R) Tennessee (4) 413
Deutch, Theodore E. (D) Florida (21) 2447
Diaz-Balart, Mario (R) Florida (25) 440
Dingell, Debbie (D) Michigan (12) 116
Doggett, Lloyd (D) Texas (35) 2307
Dold, Robert J. (R) Illinois (10) 221
Donovan, Daniel M., Jr. (R) New York (11) 1725
Doyle, Michael F. (D) Pennsylvania (14) 239
Duckworth, Tammy (D) Illinois (8) 104
Duffy, Sean P. (R) Wisconsin (7) 1208
Duncan, Jeff (R) South Carolina (3) 106
Duncan, John J., Jr. (R) Tennessee (2) 2207
Edwards, Donna F. (D) Maryland (4) 2445
Ellison, Keith (D) Minnesota (5) 2263
Ellmers, Renee L. (R) North Carolina (2) 1210
Emmer, Tom (R) Minnesota (6) 503
Engel, Eliot L. (D) New York (16) 2462
Eshoo, Anna G. (D) California (18) 241
Esty, Elizabeth H. (D) Connecticut (5) 405
Farenthold, Blake (R) Texas (27) 1027
Farr, Sam (D) California (20) 1126
[Fattah, Chaka] (D) Pennsylvania (2) 2301
Fincher, Stephen Lee (R) Tennessee (8) 2452
Fitzpatrick, Michael G. (R) Pennsylvania (8) 2400
Fleischmann, Charles J. (R) Tennessee (3) 230
Fleming, John (R) Louisiana (4) 2182
Flores, Bill (R) Texas (17) 1030
Forbes, J. Randy (R) Virginia (4) 2135
Fortenberry, Jeff (R) Nebraska (1) 1514
Foster, Bill (D) Illinois (11) 1224
Foxx, Virginia (R) North Carolina (5) 2350
Frankel, Lois (D) Florida (22) 1037
Franks, Trent (R) Arizona (8) 2435
Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. (R) New Jersey (11) 2306
Fudge, Marcia L. (D) Ohio (11) 2344
Gabbard, Tulsi (D) Hawaii (2) 1609
Gallego, Ruben (D) Arizona (7) 1218
Garamendi, John (D) California (3) 2438
Garrett, Scott (R) New Jersey (5) 2232
Gibbs, Bob (R) Ohio (7) 329
Gibson, Christopher P. (R) New York (19) 1708
Gohmert, Louie (R) Texas (1) 2243
Goodlatte, Bob (R) Virginia (6) 2309
Gosar, Paul A. (R) Arizona (4) 504
Gowdy, Trey (R) South Carolina (4) 1404
Graham, Gwen (D) Florida (2) 1213
Granger, Kay (R) Texas (12) 1026
Graves, Garret (R) Louisiana (6) 204
Graves, Sam (R) Missouri (6) 1415
Graves, Tom (R) Georgia (14) 2442
Grayson, Alan (D) Florida (9) 303
Green, Al (D) Texas (9) 2347
Green, Gene (D) Texas (29) 2470
Griffith, H. Morgan (R) Virginia (9) 1108
Grijalva, Raúl M. (D) Arizona (3) 1511
Grothman, Glenn (R) Wisconsin (6) 501
Guinta, Frank C. (R) New Hampshire (1) 326
Guthrie, Brett (R) Kentucky (2) 2434
Gutiérrez, Luis V. (D) Illinois (4) 2408
Hahn, Janice (D) California (44) 404
Hanna, Richard L. (R) New York (22) 319
Hardy, Cresent (R) Nevada (4) 430
Harper, Gregg (R) Mississippi (3) 307
Harris, Andy (R) Maryland (1) 1533
Hartzler, Vicky (R) Missouri (4) 2235
Hastings, Alcee L. (D) Florida (20) 2353
Heck, Denny (D) Washington (10) 425
Heck, Joseph J. (R) Nevada (3) 132
Hensarling, Jeb (R) Texas (5) 2228
Herrera Beutler, Jaime (R) Washington (3) 1130
Hice, Jody B. (R) Georgia (10) 1516
Higgins, Brian (D) New York (26) 2459
Hill, J. French (R) Arkansas (2) 1229
Himes, James A. (D) Connecticut (4) 1227
Hinojosa, Rubén (D) Texas (15) 2262
Holding, George (R) North Carolina (13) 507
Honda, Michael M. (D) California (17) 1713
Hoyer, Steny H. (D) Maryland (5) 1705
Hudson, Richard (R) North Carolina (8) 429
Huelskamp, Tim (R) Kansas (1) 1110
Huffman, Jared (D) California (2) 1630
Huizenga, Bill (R) Michigan (2) 1217
Hultgren, Randy (R) Illinois (14) 2455
Hunter, Duncan (R) California (50) 2429
Hurd, Will (R) Texas (23) 317
Hurt, Robert (R) Virginia (5) 125
Israel, Steve (D) New York (3) 2457
Issa, Darrell E. (R) California (49) 2269
Jackson Lee, Sheila (D) Texas (18) 2252
Jeffries, Hakeem S. (D) New York (8) 1607
Jenkins, Evan H. (R) West Virginia (3) 502
Jenkins, Lynn (R) Kansas (2) 1526
Johnson, Bill (R) Ohio (6) 1710
Johnson, Eddie Bernice (D) Texas (30) 2468
Johnson, Henry C., Jr. (D) Georgia (4) 2240
Johnson, Sam (R) Texas (3) 2304
Jolly, David W. (R) Florida (13) 1728
Jones, Walter B. (R) North Carolina (3) 2333
Jordan, Jim (R) Ohio (4) 1524
Joyce, David P. (R) Ohio (14) 1124
Kaptur, Marcy (D) Ohio (9) 2186
Katko, John (R) New York (24) 1123
Keating, William R. (D) Massachusetts (9) 315
Kelly, Mike (R) Pennsylvania (3) 1519
Kelly, Robin L. (D) Illinois (2) 1239
Kelly, Trent (R) Mississippi (1) 1427
Kennedy, Joseph P., III (D) Massachusetts (4) 306
Kildee, Daniel T. (D) Michigan (5) 227
Kilmer, Derek (D) Washington (6) 1520
Kind, Ron (D) Wisconsin (3) 1502
King, Peter T. (R) New York (2) 339
King, Steve (R) Iowa (4) 2210
Kinzinger, Adam (R) Illinois (16) 1221
Kirkpatrick, Ann (D) Arizona (1) 201
Kline, John (R) Minnesota (2) 2439
Knight, Stephen (R) California (25) 1023
Kuster, Ann M. (D) New Hampshire (2) 137
Labrador, Raúl R. (R) Idaho (1) 1523
LaHood, Darin (R) Illinois (18) 2464
LaMalfa, Doug (R) California (1) 322
Lamborn, Doug (R) Colorado (5) 2402
Lance, Leonard (R) New Jersey (7) 2352
Langevin, James R. (D) Rhode Island (2) 109
Larsen, Rick (D) Washington (2) 2113
Larson, John B. (D) Connecticut (1) 1501
Latta, Robert E. (R) Ohio (5) 2448
Lawrence, Brenda L. (D) Michigan (14) 1237
Lee, Barbara (D) California (13) 2267
Levin, Sander M. (D) Michigan (9) 1236
Lewis, John (D) Georgia (5) 343
Lieu, Ted (D) California (33) 415
Lipinski, Daniel (D) Illinois (3) 2346
LoBiondo, Frank A. (R) New Jersey (2) 2427
Loebsack, David (D) Iowa (2) 1527
Lofgren, Zoe (D) California (19) 1401
Long, Billy (R) Missouri (7) 1541
Loudermilk, Barry (R) Georgia (11) 238
Love, Mia B. (R) Utah (4) 217
Lowenthal, Alan S. (D) California (47) 108
Lowey, Nita M. (D) New York (17) 2365
Lucas, Frank D. (R) Oklahoma (3) 2405
Luetkemeyer, Blaine (R) Missouri (3) 2440
Luján, Ben Ray (D) New Mexico (3) 2446
Lujan Grisham, Michelle (D) New Mexico (1) 214
Lummis, Cynthia M. (R) Wyoming (At Large) 2433
Lynch, Stephen F. (D) Massachusetts (8) 2369
MacArthur, Thomas (R) New Jersey (3) 506
Maloney, Carolyn B. (D) New York (12) 2308
Maloney, Sean Patrick (D) New York (18) 1529
Marchant, Kenny (R) Texas (24) 2313
Marino, Tom (R) Pennsylvania (10) 410
Massie, Thomas (R) Kentucky (4) 314
Matsui, Doris O. (D) California (6) 2311
McCarthy, Kevin (R) California (23) 2421
McCaul, Michael T. (R) Texas (10) 131
McClintock, Tom (R) California (4) 2331
McCollum, Betty (D) Minnesota (4) 2256
McDermott, Jim (D) Washington (7) 1035
McGovern, James P. (D) Massachusetts (2) 438
McHenry, Patrick T. (R) North Carolina (10) 2334
McKinley, David B. (R) West Virginia (1) 412
McMorris Rodgers, Cathy (R) Washington (5) 203
McNerney, Jerry (D) California (9) 2265
McSally, Martha (R) Arizona (2) 1029
Meadows, Mark (R) North Carolina (11) 1024
Meehan, Patrick (R) Pennsylvania (7) 434
Meeks, Gregory W. (D) New York (5) 2234
Meng, Grace (D) New York (6) 1317
Messer, Luke (R) Indiana (6) 508
Mica, John L. (R) Florida (7) 2187
Miller, Candice S. (R) Michigan (10) 320
Miller, Jeff (R) Florida (1) 336
Moolenaar, John R. (R) Michigan (4) 117
Mooney, Alexander X. (R) West Virginia (2) 1232
Moore, Gwen (D) Wisconsin (4) 2245
Moulton, Seth (D) Massachusetts (6) 1408
Mullin, Markwayne (R) Oklahoma (2) 1113
Mulvaney, Mick (R) South Carolina (5) 2419
Murphy, Patrick (D) Florida (18) 211
Murphy, Tim (R) Pennsylvania (18) 2332
Nadler, Jerrold (D) New York (10) 2109
Napolitano, Grace F. (D) California (32) 1610
Neal, Richard E. (D) Massachusetts (1) 341
Neugebauer, Randy (R) Texas (19) 1424
Newhouse, Dan (R) Washington (4) 1641
Noem, Kristi L. (R) South Dakota (At Large) 2422
Nolan, Richard M. (D) Minnesota (8) 2366
Norcross, Donald (D) New Jersey (1) 1531
Norton, Eleanor Holmes (D) District of Columbia (Delegate) 2136
Nugent, Richard B. (R) Florida (11) 1727
Nunes, Devin (R) California (22) 1013
Olson, Pete (R) Texas (22) 2133
O'Rourke, Beto (D) Texas (16) 1330
Palazzo, Steven M. (R) Mississippi (4) 331
Pallone, Frank, Jr. (D) New Jersey (6) 237
Palmer, Gary J. (R) Alabama (6) 206
Pascrell, Bill, Jr. (D.) New Jersey (9) 2370
Paulsen, Erik (R) Minnesota (3) 127
Payne, Donald M., Jr. (D) New Jersey (10) 103
Pearce, Stevan (R) New Mexico (2) 2432
Pelosi, Nancy (D) California (12) 233
Perlmutter, Ed (D) Colorado (7) 1410
Perry, Scott (R) Pennsylvania (4) 1207
Peters, Scott H. (D) California (52) 1122
Peterson, Collin C. (D) Minnesota (7) 2204
Pierluisi, Pedro R. (D) Puerto Rico (Resident Commissioner) 2410
Pingree, Chellie (D) Maine (1) 2162
Pittenger, Robert (R) North Carolina (9) 224
Pitts, Joseph R. (R) Pennsylvania (16) 420
Plaskett, Stacey E. (D) Virgin Islands (Delegate) 509
Pocan, Mark (D) Wisconsin (2) 313
Poe, Ted (R) Texas (2) 2412
Poliquin, Bruce (R) Maine (2) 426
Polis, Jared (D) Colorado (2) 1433
Pompeo, Mike (R) Kansas (4) 436
Posey, Bill (R) Florida (8) 120
Price, David E. (D) North Carolina (4) 2108
Price, Tom (R) Georgia (6) 100
Quigley, Mike (D) Illinois (5) 2458
Radewagen, Aumua Amata Coleman (R) American Samoa (Delegate) 1339
Rangel, Charles B. (D) New York (13) 2354
Ratcliffe, John (R) Texas (4) 325
Reed, Tom (R) New York (23) 2437
Reichert, David G. (R) Washington (8) 1127
Renacci, James B. (R) Ohio (16) 328
Ribble, Reid J. (R) Wisconsin (8) 1513
Rice, Kathleen M. (D) New York (4) 1508
Rice, Tom (R) South Carolina (7) 223
Richmond, Cedric L. (D) Louisiana (2) 240
Rigell, E. Scott (R) Virginia (2) 418
Roby, Martha (R) Alabama (2) 442
Roe, David P. (R) Tennessee (1) 407
Rogers, Harold (R) Kentucky (5) 2406
Rogers, Mike (R) Alabama (3) 324
Rohrabacher, Dana (R) California (48) 2300
Rokita, Todd (R) Indiana (4) 1717
Rooney, Thomas J. (R) Florida (17) 2160
Roskam, Peter J. (R) Illinois (6) 2246
Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana (R) Florida (27) 2206
Ross, Dennis A. (R) Florida (15) 229
Rothfus, Keith J. (R) Pennsylvania (12) 1205
Rouzer, David (R) North Carolina (7) 424
Roybal-Allard, Lucille (D) California (40) 2330
Royce, Edward R. (R) California (39) 2310
Ruiz, Raul (D) California (36) 1319
Ruppersberger, C.A. Dutch (D) Maryland (2) 2416
Rush, Bobby L. (D) Illinois (1) 2188
Russell, Steve (R) Oklahoma (5) 128
Ryan, Paul D. (R) Wisconsin (1) 1233
Ryan, Tim (D) Ohio (13) 1421
Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho (D) Northern Mariana Islands (Delegate) 423
Salmon, Matt (R) Arizona (5) 2349
Sánchez, Linda T. (D) California (38) 2329
Sanchez, Loretta (D) California (46) 1211
Sanford, Mark (R) South Carolina (1) 2201
Sarbanes, John P. (D) Maryland (3) 2444
Scalise, Steve (R) Louisiana (1) 2338
Schakowsky, Janice D. (D) Illinois (9) 2367
Schiff, Adam B. (D) California (28) 2411
Schrader, Kurt (D) Oregon (5) 2431
Schweikert, David (R) Arizona (6) 409
Scott, Austin (R) Georgia (8) 2417
Scott, David (D) Georgia (13) 225
Scott, Robert C. (D) Virginia (3) 1201
Sensenbrenner, F. James, Jr. (R) Wisconsin (5) 2449
Serrano, José E. (D) New York (15) 2227
Sessions, Pete (R) Texas (32) 2233
Sewell, Terri A. (D) Alabama (7) 1133
Sherman, Brad (D) California (30) 2242
Shimkus, John (R) Illinois (15) 2217
Shuster, Bill (R) Pennsylvania (9) 2268
Simpson, Michael K. (R) Idaho (2) 2312
Sinema, Kyrsten (D) Arizona (9) 1530
Sires, Albio (D) New Jersey (8) 2342
Slaughter, Louise McIntosh (D) New York (25) 2469
Smith, Adam (D) Washington (9) 2264
Smith, Adrian (R) Nebraska (3) 2241
Smith, Christopher H. (R) New Jersey (4) 2373
Smith, Jason (R) Missouri (8) 1118
Smith, Lamar (R) Texas (21) 2409
Speier, Jackie (D) California (14) 2465
Stefanik, Elise M. (R) New York (21) 512
Stewart, Chris (R) Utah (2) 323
Stivers, Steve (R) Ohio (15) 1022
Stutzman, Marlin A. (R) Indiana (3) 2418
Swalwell, Eric (D) California (15) 129
[Takai, Mark] (D) Hawaii (1) 422
Takano, Mark (D) California (41) 1507
Thompson, Bennie G. (D) Mississippi (2) 2466
Thompson, Glenn (R) Pennsylvania (5) 124
Thompson, Mike (D) California (5) 231
Thornberry, Mac (R) Texas (13) 2208
Tiberi, Patrick J. (R) Ohio (12) 1203
Tipton, Scott R. (R) Colorado (3) 218
Titus, Dina (D) Nevada (1) 401
Tonko, Paul (D) New York (20) 2463
Torres, Norma J. (D) California (35) 516
Trott, David A. (R) Michigan (11) 1722
Tsongas, Niki (D) Massachusetts (3) 1714
Turner, Michael R. (R) Ohio (10) 2239
Upton, Fred (R) Michigan (6) 2183
Valadao, David G. (R) California (21) 1004
Van Hollen, Chris (D) Maryland (8) 1707
Vargas, Juan (D) California (51) 1605
Veasey, Marc A. (D) Texas (33) 414
Vela, Filemon (D) Texas (34) 437
Velázquez, Nydia M. (D) New York (7) 2302
Visclosky, Peter J. (D) Indiana (1) 2328
Wagner, Ann (R) Missouri (2) 435
Walberg, Tim (R) Michigan (7) 2436
Walden, Greg (R) Oregon (2) 2185
Walker, Mark (R) North Carolina (6) 312
Walorski, Jackie (R) Indiana (2) 419
Walters, Mimi (R) California (45) 236
Walz, Timothy J. (D) Minnesota (1) 1034
Wasserman Schultz, Debbie (D) Florida (23) 1114
Waters, Maxine (D) California (43) 2221
Watson Coleman, Bonnie (D) New Jersey (12) 126
Weber, Randy K., Sr. (R) Texas (14) 510
Webster, Daniel (R) Florida (10) 1039
Welch, Peter (D) Vermont (At Large) 2303
Wenstrup, Brad R. (R) Ohio (2) 1318
Westerman, Bruce (R) Arkansas (4) 130
Westmoreland, Lynn A. (R) Georgia (3) 2202
Whitfield, Ed (R) Kentucky (1) 2184
Williams, Roger (R) Texas (25) 1323
Wilson, Frederica S. (D) Florida (24) 208
Wilson, Joe (R) South Carolina (2) 2229
Wittman, Robert J. (R) Virginia (1) 2454
Womack, Steve (R) Arkansas (3) 1119
Woodall, Rob (R) Georgia (7) 1724
Yarmuth, John A. (D) Kentucky (3) 403
Yoder, Kevin (R) Kansas (3) 215
Yoho, Ted S. (R) Florida (3) 511
Young, David (R) Iowa (3) 515
Young, Don (R) Alaska (At Large) 2314
Young, Todd C. (R) Indiana (9) 1007
Zeldin, Lee M. (R) New York (1) 1517
Zinke, Ryan K. (R) Montana (At Large) 113
Davidson, Warren (R) Ohio (8) 1011

Republicans are 247; Democrats are 188. The total number of Members is 435. (The Resident Commissioner and five Delegates are not counted as Members.) Please note: House.gov is a more up-to-date electronic source of information.

Sources of Information

Career Opportunities

The House Vacancy Announcement and Placement Service assists House Members, committees, and leadership by posting job vacancies and maintaining a resume bank. The Service provides confidential referral of resumes when House offices request them. Information on submitting a resume is available online.


To apply for positions with House organizations, read the individual vacancy announcements and follow the instructions.



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Congressional Art Competition

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Contact a Representative

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Educational Resources

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Adults seeking to learn about commissions, committees, House history, House leadership, Representatives, rules, or a Representative's schedule may benefit from "The House Explained" section on House.gov.



The Office of the Clerk's Web site features a short glossary for children.


House.gov features a glossary of terms related to congressional records.


House.gov features a glossary of records management terms.


The "Statement of Disbursements" is a quarterly public report of all receipts and expenditures for U.S. House of Representatives committees, leadership, Members, and officers and offices. House.gov features a glossary to help readers of this public report.



The Congressional Directory, Rules and Manual of the House of Representatives, and telephone directory for the House of Representatives are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132.

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