Getting Started

To begin searching within the
Government Manual simply type in a keyword or phrase to find your match.

Congressional Budget Office

Second and D Streets SW., Washington, DC 20515


Deputy Director Mark P. Hadley

Associate Director, Communications Deborah Kilroe
Associate Director, Economic Analysis Wendy Edelberg
Associate Director, Economic Analysis Jeffrey Kling
Associate Director, Legislative Affairs Leigh Angres
General Counsel T.J. McGrath
Senior Advisor Robert A. Sunshine

Assistant Director, Budget Analysis Theresa A. Gullo
Assistant Director, Financial Analysis Sebastien Gay
Assistant Director, Health, Retirement, and Long-Term Analysis David Weaver
Assistant Director, Macroeconomic Analysis Jeffrey F. Werling
Assistant Director, Microeconomic Studies Joseph Kile
Assistant Director, National Security David E. Mosher
Assistant Director, Tax Analysis John McClelland
Chief Administrative Officer, Management, Business, and Information Services Joseph E. Evans, Jr.

The Congressional Budget Office produces independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the congressional budget process.

Organizational Chart

The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) was established by the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (2 U.S.C. 601), which also created a procedure by which the Congress considers and acts on the annual Federal budget. This process enables the Congress to have an overview of the Federal budget and to make overall decisions on spending and taxation levels and on the deficit or surplus these levels generate.


The CBO assists the congressional budget committees with drafting and enforcing the annual budget resolution, which serves as a blueprint for total levels of Government spending and revenues in a fiscal year. Once completed, the budget resolution guides the action of other congressional committees in drafting subsequent spending and revenue legislation within their jurisdiction.

To support this process, the CBO makes budgetary and economic projections, analyzes the proposals set forth in the President's budget request, and details alternative spending and revenue options for lawmakers to consider. The CBO also provides cost estimates of bills approved by congressional committees and tracks the progress of spending and revenue legislation in a scorekeeping system. CBO cost estimates and scorekeeping help the budget committees determine whether the budgetary effects of individual proposals are consistent with the most recent spending and revenue targets.

Upon congressional request, the CBO also produces reports analyzing specific policy and program issues that are significant for the budget. In keeping with the Office's nonpartisan role, its analyses do not include policy recommendations, and they routinely disclose their underlying assumptions and methods. This open and nonpartisan stance has been instrumental in preserving the credibility of the Office's analyses.

Analysis of the President's Budget

The CBO estimates the budgetary impact of the proposals in the President's budget using its own economic forecast and assumptions. The CBO's independent reestimate allows Congress to compare the administration's spending and revenue proposals with the CBO's baseline projections and other proposals using a consistent set of economic and technical assumptions.

Baseline Budget Projections and Economic Forecasts

Each year, the CBO issues reports on the budget and economic outlook that cover the 10-year period used in the congressional budget process. Those reports present and explain the CBO's baseline budget projections and economic forecast, which are generally based on current law regarding Federal spending and revenues. The reports also describe the differences between the current projections and previous ones, compare the CBO's economic forecast with those of other forecasters, and show the budgetary impact of some alternative policy assumptions.

Budgetary and Economic Policy Issues

The CBO also analyzes specific program and policy issues that affect the Federal budget and the economy. Generally, requests for these analyses come from the chair or ranking minority member of a committee or subcommittee or from the leadership of either party in the House or Senate.

Cost Estimates for Bills

The CBO provides cost estimates of every bill to show how it would affect spending or revenues over the next 5 or 10 years, depending on the type of spending involved. The CBO also provides informal estimates at the committee level and other stages in the legislative process.

Federal Mandates

As required by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995, the CBO analyzes the costs that proposed legislation would impose on State, local, and tribal governments and on the private sector. The CBO produces mandate statements with its cost estimates for each committee-approved bill.


The CBO provides the budget and appropriations committees with frequent tabulations of congressional action affecting spending and revenues. Those scorekeeping reports provide information on whether legislative actions are consistent with the spending and revenue levels set by the budget resolution.

Sources of Information


The CBO Web site features a blog.

Business Opportunities

Information to help vendors is available online. | Email:

Cost Estimates

The CBO Web site features an online tool for searching cost estimates.

Career Opportunities

A career at the CBO offers opportunities to analyze public policies and their budgetary and economic effects, to work with policy analysis experts, to support the Congress, and to provide nonpartisan and objective analysis. | Email:

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The CBO posts answers to the most common questions that people ask.


The glossary is available online in Portable Document Format (PDF). It defines terms that are commonly used in CBO reports. Many of the entries conform to those published in "A Glossary of Terms Used in the Federal Budget Process" (Government Accountability Office, 2005).

Information Products

CBO informational, nonpartisan products include baseline projections for selected programs, budget and economic data, and major recurring reports.


Interns attend seminars, participate in an educational program, and contribute to the agency's output of analysis. | Email:

Press Center

The CBO posts news and upcoming events online, as well as SlideShare presentations and YouTube videos. It also disseminates information via an RSS feed and by tweeting on Twitter.

Site Map

The CBO site map allows Internet visitors to look for keywords or to browse content that aligns with their interests.


The CBO Web sites allows visitors to browse topics of analysis or to search for them with an online search tool. Topic categories include agriculture, budget, climate and environment, economy, education, energy and natural resources, health care, housing, immigration, income distribution, poverty and income security, social security, taxes, and more.

Visiting Scholars

The CBO welcomes applications from analysts and scholars in all fields; however, it has a special interest in collaborating with experts in macroeconomics and financial, health, and public economics. | Email:

Developed by: Government Printing Office | Digital Media Services (DMS)