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The Senate

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20510

202-224-3121
http://www.senate.gov

CONSTITUTIONALLY MANDATED OFFICERS

President of the Senate / Vice President of the United States Michael R. Pence
President pro tempore Orrin G. Hatch


POLITICAL PARTY LEADERS

Majority Leader A. Mitchell McConnell
Minority Leader Charles E. Schumer


OFFICERS / OFFICIALS

Chaplain Barry C. Black
Parliamentarian Elizabeth C. MacDonough
Secretary for the Majority Laura C. Dove
Secretary for the Minority Gary B. Myrick
Secretary of the Senate Julie E. Adams
Sergeant at Arms Frank J. Larkin
Organizational Chart

Overview

The Senate comprises 100 Members, 2 from each State. Senators are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. There are three classes of Senators, and a new class is elected every 2 years. Senators were originally chosen by the State legislatures. The 17th amendment, which became part of the Constitution in 1913, made their election a function of the people.

A Senator must be a resident of the State that he or she represents. A Senator also must be at least 30 years of age and have been a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years.

Officers

The Vice President of the United States is the Presiding Officer of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the duties are taken over by a President pro tempore, elected by that body, or someone designated by the President pro tempore.

The positions of Senate Majority and Minority Leader have been in existence only since the early years of the 20th century. Leaders are elected at the beginning of each new Congress by a majority vote of the Senators in their political party. In cooperation with their party organizations, Leaders are responsible for the design and achievement of a legislative program. This involves managing the flow of legislation, expediting noncontroversial measures, and keeping Members informed regarding proposed action on pending business. Each Leader serves as an ex officio member of his party's policymaking and organizational bodies and is aided by an assistant floor leader (whip) and a party secretary.

The Secretary of the Senate, elected by vote of the Senate, performs the duties of the Presiding Officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President and pending the election of a President pro tempore. The Secretary is the custodian of the seal of the Senate, draws requisitions on the Secretary of the Treasury for moneys appropriated for the compensation of Senators, officers, and employees, and for the contingent expenses of the Senate, and is empowered to administer oaths to any officer of the Senate and to any witness produced before it. The Secretary's executive duties include certification of extracts from the Journal of the Senate; the attestation of bills and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions; in impeachment trials, issuance, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, of all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate; and certification to the President of the United States of the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

The Sergeant at Arms, elected by vote of the Senate, serves as the executive, chief law enforcement, and protocol officer and is the principal administrative manager for most support services in the Senate. As executive officer, the Sergeant at Arms has custody of the Senate gavel; enforces Senate rules and regulations as they pertain to the Senate Chamber, the Senate wing of the Capitol, and the Senate office buildings; and subject to the Presiding Officer, maintains order on the Senate floor, Chamber, and galleries. As chief law enforcement officer of the Senate, the Sergeant at Arms is authorized to maintain security in the Capitol and all Senate buildings, as well as to protect Senators; to arrest and detain any person violating Senate rules; and to locate absentee Senators for a quorum. The Sergeant at Arms serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board and as its chairman each odd year. As protocol officer, the Sergeant at Arms escorts the President and other heads of state or official guests of the Senate who are attending official functions in the Capitol; makes arrangements for funerals of Senators who die in office; and assists in planning the inauguration of the President and organizing the swearing-in and orientation programs for newly elected Senators.

Committees

The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 16 standing committees in the Senate. The standing committees of the Senate are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in each House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.

http://www.senate.gov/general/common/generic/about_committees.htm
STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE
Committee Chair Web Site
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry C. Patrick Roberts http://www.agriculture.senate.gov
Appropriations W. Thad Cochran http://www.appropriations.senate.gov
Armed Services John S. McCain http://www.armed-services.senate.gov
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Michael D. Crapo http://www.banking.senate.gov
Budget Michael B. Enzi http://www.budget.senate.gov
Commerce, Science, and Transportation John R. Thune http://www.commerce.senate.gov
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa A. Murkowski https://www.energy.senate.gov
Environment and Public Works John A. Barrasso https://www.epw.senate.gov
Finance Orrin G. Hatch https://www.finance.senate.gov
Foreign Relations Robert P. Corker, Jr. http://www.foreign.senate.gov
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions A. Lamar Alexander, Jr. http://www.help.senate.gov
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ronald H. Johnson https://www.hsgac.senate.gov
Judiciary Charles E. Grassley https://www.judiciary.senate.gov
Rules and Administration Richard C. Shelby http://www.rules.senate.gov/public
Small Business and Entrepreneurship James E. Risch http://www.sbc.senate.gov
Veterans' Affairs John H. Isakson https://www.veterans.senate.gov
| https://www.senate.gov/committees/committees_home.htm

Special Powers

Under the Constitution, the Senate is granted certain powers not accorded to the House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves certain Presidential appointments by majority vote, and treaties must be concurred in by a two-thirds vote.

List of U.S. Senators

STATE EXPIRATION OF TERM—PARTY AFFILIATION CONTACT INFORMATION
Alabama
Richard C. Shelby 2023—Republican http://www.shelby.senate.gov
G. Douglas Jones 2021—Democrat https://www.senate.gov/senators/115thCongress/Jones_Doug.htm
Alaska
Lisa A. Murkowski 2023—Republican https://www.murkowski.senate.gov
Daniel S. Sullivan 2021—Republican http://www.sullivan.senate.gov
Arizona
Jeffry L. Flake 2019—Republican http://www.flake.senate.gov
John S. McCain 2023—Republican http://www.mccain.senate.gov
Arkansas
John N. Boozman 2023—Republican https://www.boozman.senate.gov
Thomas B. Cotton 2021—Republican https://www.cotton.senate.gov
California
Dianne Feinstein 2019—Democrat http://www.feinstein.senate.gov
Kamala D. Harris 2023—Democrat https://www.harris.senate.gov
Colorado
Michael F. Bennet 2023—Democrat https://www.bennet.senate.gov
Cory S. Gardner 2021—Republican https://www.gardner.senate.gov
Connecticut
Richard Blumenthal 2023—Democrat https://www.blumenthal.senate.gov
Christopher S. Murphy 2019—Democrat https://www.murphy.senate.gov
Delaware
Thomas R. Carper 2019—Democrat https://www.carper.senate.gov
Christopher A. Coons 2021—Democrat https://www.coons.senate.gov
Florida
C. William Nelson 2019—Democrat https://www.billnelson.senate.gov
Marco A. Rubio 2023—Republican http://www.rubio.senate.gov
Georgia
John H. Isakson 2023—Republican https://www.isakson.senate.gov
David A. Perdue, Jr. 2021—Republican http://www.perdue.senate.gov
Hawaii
Mazie K. Hirono 2019—Democrat https://www.hirono.senate.gov
Brian E. Schatz 2023—Democrat http://www.schatz.senate.gov
Idaho
Michael D. Crapo 2023—Republican http://www.crapo.senate.gov
James E. Risch 2021—Republican http://www.risch.senate.gov
Illinois
L. Tammy Duckworth 2023—Democrat https://www.duckworth.senate.gov
Richard J. Durbin 2021—Democrat http://www.durbin.senate.gov
Indiana
Joseph S. Donnelly 2019—Democrat http://www.donnelly.senate.gov
Todd C. Young 2023—Republican https://www.young.senate.gov
Iowa
Joni K. Ernst 2021—Republican http://www.ernst.senate.gov
Charles E. Grassley 2023—Republican http://www.grassley.senate.gov
Kansas
Gerald W. Moran 2023—Republican http://www.moran.senate.gov
C. Patrick Roberts 2021—Republican http://www.roberts.senate.gov
Kentucky
A. Mitchell McConnell 2021—Republican http://www.mcconnell.senate.gov
Randal H. Paul 2023—Republican https://www.paul.senate.gov
Louisiana
William Cassidy 2021—Republican http://www.cassidy.senate.gov
John N. Kennedy 2023—Republican https://www.kennedy.senate.gov
Maine
Susan M. Collins 2021—Republican https://www.collins.senate.gov
Angus S. King, Jr. 2019—Independent http://www.king.senate.gov
Maryland
Benjamin L. Cardin 2019—Democrat https://www.cardin.senate.gov
Christopher Van Hollen, Jr. 2023—Democrat https://www.vanhollen.senate.gov
Massachusetts
Edward J. Markey 2021—Democrat http://www.markey.senate.gov
Elizabeth A. Warren 2019—Democrat https://www.warren.senate.gov
Michigan
Gary C. Peters 2021—Democrat https://www.peters.senate.gov
Deborah A. Stabenow 2019—Democrat http://www.stabenow.senate.gov
Minnesota
Tina F. Smith 2021—Democrat https://www.senate.gov/senators/115thCongress/Smith_Tina.htm
Amy J. Klobuchar 2019—Democrat https://www.klobuchar.senate.gov
Mississippi
W. Thad Cochran 2021—Republican http://www.cochran.senate.gov
Roger F. Wicker 2019—Republican https://www.wicker.senate.gov
Missouri
Roy D. Blunt 2023—Republican http://www.blunt.senate.gov
Claire McCaskill 2019—Democrat https://www.mccaskill.senate.gov
Montana
Steven D. Daines 2021—Republican https://www.daines.senate.gov
Jonathan Tester 2019—Democrat http://www.tester.senate.gov
Nebraska
Debra S. Fischer 2019—Republican http://www.fischer.senate.gov
Benjamin E. Sasse 2021—Republican http://www.sasse.senate.gov
Nevada
Catherine Cortez Masto 2023—Democrat https://www.cortezmasto.senate.gov
Dean A. Heller 2019—Republican http://www.heller.senate.gov
New Hampshire
Margaret Wood Hassan 2023—Democrat https://www.hassan.senate.gov
Jeanne Shaheen 2021—Democrat https://www.shaheen.senate.gov
New Jersey
Cory A. Booker 2021—Democrat http://www.booker.senate.gov
Robert Menendez 2019—Democrat https://www.menendez.senate.gov
New Mexico
Martin Heinrich 2019—Democrat http://www.heinrich.senate.gov
Thomas S. Udall 2021—Democrat http://www.tomudall.senate.gov
New York
Kirsten E. Gillibrand 2019—Democrat https://www.gillibrand.senate.gov
Charles E. Schumer 2023—Democrat https://www.schumer.senate.gov
North Carolina
Richard Burr 2023—Republican http://www.burr.senate.gov
Thomas R. Tillis 2021—Republican https://www.tillis.senate.gov
North Dakota
Heidi Heitkamp 2019—Democrat http://www.heitkamp.senate.gov
John H. Hoeven III 2023—Republican https://www.hoeven.senate.gov
Ohio
Sherrod C. Brown 2019—Democrat https://www.brown.senate.gov
Robert J. Portman 2023—Republican http://www.portman.senate.gov
Oklahoma
James M. Inhofe 2021—Republican http://www.inhofe.senate.gov
James Lankford 2023—Republican https://www.lankford.senate.gov
Oregon
Jeffrey A. Merkley 2021—Democrat https://www.merkley.senate.gov
Ronald L. Wyden 2023—Democrat https://www.wyden.senate.gov
Pennsylvania
Robert P. Casey, Jr. 2019—Democrat https://www.casey.senate.gov
Patrick J. Toomey 2023—Republican http://www.toomey.senate.gov
Rhode Island
John F. Reed 2021—Democrat https://www.reed.senate.gov
Sheldon Whitehouse 2019—Democrat https://www.whitehouse.senate.gov
South Carolina
Lindsey O. Graham 2021—Republican https://www.lgraham.senate.gov
Timothy E. Scott 2023—Republican https://www.scott.senate.gov
South Dakota
M. Michael Rounds 2021—Republican https://www.rounds.senate.gov
John R. Thune 2023—Republican https://www.thune.senate.gov
Tennessee
A. Lamar Alexander, Jr. 2021—Republican https://www.alexander.senate.gov
Robert P. Corker, Jr. 2019—Republican https://www.corker.senate.gov
Texas
John Cornyn III 2021—Republican https://www.cornyn.senate.gov
R. Edward Cruz 2019—Republican https://www.cruz.senate.gov
Utah
Orrin G. Hatch 2019—Republican http://www.hatch.senate.gov
Michael S. Lee 2023—Republican https://www.lee.senate.gov
Vermont
Patrick J. Leahy 2023—Democrat https://www.leahy.senate.gov
Bernard Sanders 2019—Independent https://www.sanders.senate.gov
Virginia
Timothy M. Kaine 2019—Democrat http://www.kaine.senate.gov
Mark R. Warner 2021—Democrat http://www.warner.senate.gov
Washington
Maria Cantwell 2019—Democrat https://www.cantwell.senate.gov
Patricia L. Murray 2023—Democrat http://www.murray.senate.gov
West Virginia
Shelley Moore Capito 2021—Republican https://www.capito.senate.gov
Joseph Manchin III 2019—Democrat http://www.manchin.senate.gov
Wisconsin
Tammy S. Baldwin 2019—Democrat https://www.baldwin.senate.gov
Ronald H. Johnson 2023—Republican https://www.ronjohnson.senate.gov
Wyoming
John A. Barrasso 2019—Republican https://www.barrasso.senate.gov
Michael B. Enzi 2021—Republican http://www.enzi.senate.gov
* * *
THE ABOVE LIST OF 100 SENATORS WAS UPDATED 01–2018.
Republicans are 51; Democrats are 47; Independents are 2; and there are no vacancies.
| https://www.senate.gov

Sources of Information

Art

The Senate's collections of ephemera, decorative art, graphic art, paintings, and sculpture can be viewed online.

http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/art/one_item_and_teasers/Explore_Senate_Art.htm

Campaign Finance

The Federal Election Commission maintains a campaign finance database that contains information on candidates, including senatorial candidates, who file reports with the Commission. Users of the online "Candidate and Committee Viewer" can sort data and download them. The data presentations consist of biennial summaries, report summaries, and report images and downloads.

http://www.fec.gov/finance/disclosure/candcmte_info.shtml?tabIndex=1

Campaign Web Sites

The Library of Congress maintains a database of "Archived Web Sites" that includes thousands of official campaign Web sites. Former senatorial candidates' Web sites are part of this collection.

https://www.loc.gov/websites

Career Opportunities

Information on fellowships, internships, and job openings is available online.

http://www.senate.gov/visiting/employment.htm

Committees

Information on Senate committees is available online.

http://www.senate.gov/committees/committees_home.htm

Congressional Record

Starting with the year 1995, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on Congress.gov.

https://www.congress.gov/congressional-record

Starting with the year 1994, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.

https://www.govinfo.gov/app/collection/crec

Contact a Senator

Phone numbers, postal addresses, and online forms are available for contacting a Senator.

http://www.senate.gov/senators/contact

An online list of States also provides web forms for contacting a Senator via email.

http://www.senate.gov/senators/states.htm

Directory

The online "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present," allows visitors to search for Members of Congress—past and present—by first or last name, political affiliation, position, State, or year or Congress.

http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp

Glossary

A Senate glossary is available online.

http://www.senate.gov/reference/glossary.htm

History

The Senate Historical Office has told the history of the Senate, from the First Federal Congress of 1789 through the early 21st century; explained its traditions; described the individuals who served in its Chamber, and examined the major issues that confronted these national leaders.

http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/a_three_section_with_teasers/Explore_Senate_History.htm

Legislation / Records

Research guides and resources are available online.

http://www.senate.gov/legislative/legislative_home.htm

Member Profiles

The "Members of the U.S. Congress" database contains profiles for Senators who have held office since 1973 or were still serving in the 93d Congress. Users of the database can filter profiles by chamber, Congress, political affiliation, and State or U.S. Territory. A Member profile includes the following: dates of service, State represented, party affiliation, and a picture when available, as well as a link to the Member's entry in the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present" and a link to remarks made in the "Congressional Record." A profile also includes the list of legislation that the Member sponsored and cosponsored.

https://www.congress.gov/members

Membership / Party Divisions

The Office of the Clerk's "Congressional Profile" Web page keeps a tally of the number of Democrats, Independents, Republicans, and vacant seats in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.

http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/cong.aspx

Publications

The Congressional Directory, the Senate Manual, and telephone directory for the U.S. Senate are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132.

https://www.gpo.gov/about/bookstore.htm | Email: mainbks@gpo.gov

Websites

More information on legislation and the U.S. Senate is available on Congress.gov.

https://www.congress.gov

More information also is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.

https://www.govinfo.gov
http://www.senate.gov/general/contacting.htm

Developed by: Government Printing Office | Digital Media Services (DMS)