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The Senate

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20510


Constitutionally Mandated Officers

Constitutionally Mandated Officers
President of the Senate / Vice President of the United StatesMichael R. Pence

President pro temporeCharles E. Grassley

Political Party Leaders

Political Party Leaders
Majority Leader—RepublicanA. Mitchell McConnell

Minority Leader—DemocratCharles E. Schumer

Senate-Elected Officers and Officials

Senate-Elected Officers and Officials
ChaplainBarry C. Black
ParliamentarianElizabeth C. MacDonough

for the MajorityRobert M. Duncan
for the MinorityGary B. Myrick
for the SenateJulie E. Adams

Sergeant at ArmsMichael C. Stenger

The above list of key personnel was updated 9–2020.

The above list of key personnel was updated 9–2020.
Organizational Chart


The Senate comprises 100 Members, 2 from each State. Senators are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. There are three classes of Senators, and a new class is elected every 2 years. Senators were originally chosen by the State legislatures. The 17th amendment, which became part of the Constitution in 1913, made their election a function of the people.

A Senator must be a resident of the State that he or she represents. A Senator also must be at least 30 years of age and have been a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years.


The Vice President of the United States is the Presiding Officer of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the duties are taken over by a President pro tempore, elected by that body, or someone designated by the President pro tempore.

The positions of Senate Majority and Minority Leader have been in existence only since the early years of the 20th century. Leaders are elected at the beginning of each new Congress by a majority vote of the Senators in their political party. In cooperation with their party organizations, Leaders are responsible for the design and achievement of a legislative program. This involves managing the flow of legislation, expediting noncontroversial measures, and keeping Members informed regarding proposed action on pending business. Each Leader serves as an ex officio member of his party's policymaking and organizational bodies and is aided by an assistant floor leader (whip) and a party secretary.

The Secretary of the Senate, elected by vote of the Senate, performs the duties of the Presiding Officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President and pending the election of a President pro tempore. The Secretary is the custodian of the seal of the Senate, draws requisitions on the Secretary of the Treasury for moneys appropriated for the compensation of Senators, officers, and employees, and for the contingent expenses of the Senate, and is empowered to administer oaths to any officer of the Senate and to any witness produced before it. The Secretary's executive duties include certification of extracts from the Journal of the Senate; the attestation of bills and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions; in impeachment trials, issuance, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, of all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate; and certification to the President of the United States of the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

The Sergeant at Arms, elected by vote of the Senate, serves as the executive, chief law enforcement, and protocol officer and is the principal administrative manager for most support services in the Senate. As executive officer, the Sergeant at Arms has custody of the Senate gavel; enforces Senate rules and regulations as they pertain to the Senate Chamber, the Senate wing of the Capitol, and the Senate office buildings; and subject to the Presiding Officer, maintains order on the Senate floor, Chamber, and galleries. As chief law enforcement officer of the Senate, the Sergeant at Arms is authorized to maintain security in the Capitol and all Senate buildings, as well as to protect Senators; to arrest and detain any person violating Senate rules; and to locate absentee Senators for a quorum. The Sergeant at Arms serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board and as its chairman each odd year. As protocol officer, the Sergeant at Arms escorts the President and other heads of state or official guests of the Senate who are attending official functions in the Capitol; makes arrangements for funerals of Senators who die in office; and assists in planning the inauguration of the President and organizing the swearing-in and orientation programs for newly elected Senators.


The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 16 standing committees in the Senate. The standing committees of the Senate are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in each House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.

Committee Chair Website
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry C. Patrick Roberts http://www.agriculture.senate.gov
Appropriations Richard C. Shelby http://www.appropriations.senate.gov
Armed Services James M. Inhofe http://www.armed-services.senate.gov
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Michael D. Crapo http://www.banking.senate.gov
Budget Michael B. Enzi http://www.budget.senate.gov
Commerce, Science, and Transportation Roger F. Wicker http://www.commerce.senate.gov
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa A. Murkowski https://www.energy.senate.gov
Environment and Public Works John A. Barrasso https://www.epw.senate.gov
Finance Charles E. Grassley https://www.finance.senate.gov
Foreign Relations James E. Risch http://www.foreign.senate.gov
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions A. Lamar Alexander, Jr. http://www.help.senate.gov
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ronald H. Johnson https://www.hsgac.senate.gov
Indian Affairs John H. Hoeven III https://www.indian.senate.gov
Judiciary Lindsey O. Graham https://www.judiciary.senate.gov
Rules and Administration Roy D. Blunt http://www.rules.senate.gov/public
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Marco A. Rubio http://www.sbc.senate.gov
Veterans' Affairs Gerald W. Moran https://www.veterans.senate.gov

Special Powers

Under the Constitution, the Senate is granted certain powers not accorded to the House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves certain Presidential appointments by majority vote, and treaties must be concurred in by a two-thirds vote.

List of U.S. Senators

Information on Senate.gov web pages may be more accurate and current.

Richard C. Shelby 2023—Republican http://www.shelby.senate.gov
G. Douglas Jones 2021—Democrat https://www.jones.senate.gov
Lisa A. Murkowski 2023—Republican https://www.murkowski.senate.gov
Daniel S. Sullivan 2021—Republican http://www.sullivan.senate.gov
Mark E. Kelly 2023—Democrat https://www.kelly.senate.gov
Kyrsten Sinema 2025—Democrat https://www.sinema.senate.gov
John N. Boozman 2023—Republican https://www.boozman.senate.gov
Thomas B. Cotton 2021—Republican https://www.cotton.senate.gov
Dianne Feinstein 2025—Democrat http://www.feinstein.senate.gov
Kamala D. Harris 2023—Democrat https://www.harris.senate.gov
Michael F. Bennet 2023—Democrat https://www.bennet.senate.gov
Cory S. Gardner 2021—Republican https://www.gardner.senate.gov
Richard L. Blumenthal 2023—Democrat https://www.blumenthal.senate.gov
Christopher S. Murphy 2025—Democrat https://www.murphy.senate.gov
Thomas R. Carper 2025—Democrat https://www.carper.senate.gov
Christopher A. Coons 2021—Democrat https://www.coons.senate.gov
Richard L. Scott 2025—Republican https://www.rickscott.senate.gov
Marco A. Rubio 2023—Republican http://www.rubio.senate.gov
Kelly L. Loeffler 2023—Republican https://www.loeffler.senate.gov
David A. Perdue, Jr. 2021—Republican http://www.perdue.senate.gov
Mazie K. Hirono 2025—Democrat https://www.hirono.senate.gov
Brian E. Schatz 2023—Democrat http://www.schatz.senate.gov
Michael D. Crapo 2023—Republican http://www.crapo.senate.gov
James E. Risch 2021—Republican http://www.risch.senate.gov
L. Tammy Duckworth 2023—Democrat https://www.duckworth.senate.gov
Richard J. Durbin 2021—Democrat http://www.durbin.senate.gov
Michael K. Braun 2025—Republican https://www.braun.senate.gov
Todd C. Young 2023—Republican https://www.young.senate.gov
Joni K. Ernst 2021—Republican http://www.ernst.senate.gov
Charles E. Grassley 2023—Republican http://www.grassley.senate.gov
Gerald W. Moran 2023—Republican http://www.moran.senate.gov
C. Patrick Roberts 2021—Republican http://www.roberts.senate.gov
A. Mitchell McConnell 2021—Republican http://www.mcconnell.senate.gov
Randal H. Paul 2023—Republican https://www.paul.senate.gov
William M. Cassidy 2021—Republican http://www.cassidy.senate.gov
John N. Kennedy 2023—Republican https://www.kennedy.senate.gov
Susan M. Collins 2021—Republican https://www.collins.senate.gov
Angus S. King, Jr. 2025—Independent http://www.king.senate.gov
Benjamin L. Cardin 2025—Democrat https://www.cardin.senate.gov
Christopher Van Hollen, Jr. 2023—Democrat https://www.vanhollen.senate.gov
Edward J. Markey 2021—Democrat http://www.markey.senate.gov
Elizabeth A. Warren 2025—Democrat https://www.warren.senate.gov
Gary C. Peters 2021—Democrat https://www.peters.senate.gov
Deborah A. Stabenow 2025—Democrat http://www.stabenow.senate.gov
Amy J. Klobuchar 2025—Democrat https://www.klobuchar.senate.gov
Tina F. Smith 2021—Democrat https://www.smith.senate.gov
Cindy Hyde-Smith 2021—Republican https://www.hydesmith.senate.gov
Roger F. Wicker 2025—Republican https://www.wicker.senate.gov
Roy D. Blunt 2023—Republican http://www.blunt.senate.gov
Joshua D. Hawley 2025—Republican https://www.hawley.senate.gov/
Steven D. Daines 2021—Republican https://www.daines.senate.gov
R. Jon Tester 2025—Democrat http://www.tester.senate.gov
Debra S. Fischer 2025—Republican http://www.fischer.senate.gov
Benjamin E. Sasse 2021—Republican http://www.sasse.senate.gov
Catherine Cortez Masto 2023—Democrat https://www.cortezmasto.senate.gov
Jacklyn S. Rosen 2025—Democrat http://www.rosen.senate.gov
New Hampshire
Margaret Wood Hassan 2023—Democrat https://www.hassan.senate.gov
C. Jeanne Shaheen 2021—Democrat https://www.shaheen.senate.gov
New Jersey
Cory A. Booker 2021—Democrat http://www.booker.senate.gov
Robert Menendez 2025—Democrat https://www.menendez.senate.gov
New Mexico
Martin T. Heinrich 2025—Democrat http://www.heinrich.senate.gov
Thomas S. Udall 2021—Democrat http://www.tomudall.senate.gov
New York
Kirsten E. Gillibrand 2025—Democrat https://www.gillibrand.senate.gov
Charles E. Schumer 2023—Democrat https://www.schumer.senate.gov
North Carolina
Richard M. Burr 2023—Republican http://www.burr.senate.gov
Thomas R. Tillis 2021—Republican https://www.tillis.senate.gov
North Dakota
Kevin Cramer 2025—Republican http://www.cramer.senate.gov
John H. Hoeven III 2023—Republican https://www.hoeven.senate.gov
Sherrod C. Brown 2025—Democrat https://www.brown.senate.gov
Robert J. Portman 2023—Republican http://www.portman.senate.gov
James M. Inhofe 2021—Republican http://www.inhofe.senate.gov
James Lankford 2023—Republican https://www.lankford.senate.gov
Jeffrey A. Merkley 2021—Democrat https://www.merkley.senate.gov
Ronald L. Wyden 2023—Democrat https://www.wyden.senate.gov
Robert P. Casey, Jr. 2025—Democrat https://www.casey.senate.gov
Patrick J. Toomey 2023—Republican http://www.toomey.senate.gov
Rhode Island
John F. Reed 2021—Democrat https://www.reed.senate.gov
Sheldon Whitehouse 2025—Democrat https://www.whitehouse.senate.gov
South Carolina
Lindsey O. Graham 2021—Republican https://www.lgraham.senate.gov
Timothy E. Scott 2023—Republican https://www.scott.senate.gov
South Dakota
M. Michael Rounds 2021—Republican https://www.rounds.senate.gov
John R. Thune 2023—Republican https://www.thune.senate.gov
A. Lamar Alexander, Jr. 2021—Republican https://www.alexander.senate.gov
Marsha W. Blackburn 2025—Republican https://www.blackburn.senate.gov
John Cornyn III 2021—Republican https://www.cornyn.senate.gov
R. Edward Cruz 2025—Republican https://www.cruz.senate.gov
W. Milton Romney 2025—Republican http://www.romney.senate.gov
Michael S. Lee 2023—Republican https://www.lee.senate.gov
Patrick J. Leahy 2023—Democrat https://www.leahy.senate.gov
Bernard Sanders 2025—Independent https://www.sanders.senate.gov
Timothy M. Kaine 2025—Democrat http://www.kaine.senate.gov
Mark R. Warner 2021—Democrat http://www.warner.senate.gov
Maria Cantwell 2025—Democrat https://www.cantwell.senate.gov
Patricia L. Murray 2023—Democrat http://www.murray.senate.gov
West Virginia
Shelley Moore Capito 2021—Republican https://www.capito.senate.gov
Joseph A. Manchin III 2025—Democrat http://www.manchin.senate.gov
Tammy S. Baldwin 2025—Democrat https://www.baldwin.senate.gov
Ronald H. Johnson 2023—Republican https://www.ronjohnson.senate.gov
John A. Barrasso III 2025—Republican https://www.barrasso.senate.gov
Michael B. Enzi 2021—Republican http://www.enzi.senate.gov
* * *
Republicans are 52; Democrats are 46; Independents are 2; and there are no vacancies.

Sources of Information


The Senate's collections of ephemera, decorative art, graphic art, paintings, and sculpture can be viewed online.

https://www.senate.gov/art/art_hist_home.htm | Email: curator@sec.senate.gov

Biographical Directory

The online "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present," allows visitors to search for Members of Congress—past and present—by first or last name, political affiliation, position, State, or year or Congress.


Books by Senators

A bibliography of books that Senators who are currently serving in the U.S. Congress have written is available online.


Campaign Finance

The Federal Election Commission maintains a campaign finance database that contains information on candidates, including senatorial candidates, who file reports with the Commission. Users of the online "Candidate and Committee Viewer" can sort data and download them. The data presentations consist of biennial summaries, report summaries, and report images and downloads.


Campaign Websites

The Library of Congress maintains a database of "Archived Web Sites" that includes thousands of official campaign websites. Former senatorial candidates' websites are part of this collection.


Career Opportunities

Information on fellowships, internships, and job openings is available online.


Chaplains of the Senate

Nine of the first ten Senate Chaplains were Episcopalian; one was Presbyterian. Based on a simple denominational count, the history of the Senate chaplaincy has been dominated by Episcopalians (19), Methodists (17), and Presbyterians (14). The total number of chaplains who have filled the office of Senate Chaplain to date is 62.


Children's Books

Links to educational resources are available on the Senate's website.



Information on Senate committees is available online.


Congressional Record

Starting with the year 1995, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on Congress.gov.


Starting with the year 1994, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.


Contact Information

The address for sending postal correspondence to a Senator or Senate committee is available online. Secretary of the Senate: Phone, 202-224-2115. U.S. Capitol switchboard: Phone, 202-224-3121.


Phone numbers, postal addresses, and online forms are available for contacting a Senator.


An online list of States also provides web forms for contacting a Senator via email.



A Senate glossary is available online.



The Senate Historical Office has told the history of the Senate, from the First Federal Congress of 1789 through the early 21st century; explained its traditions; described the individuals who served in its Chamber, and examined the major issues that confronted these national leaders.

http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/a_three_section_with_teasers/Explore_Senate_History.htm | Email: historian@sec.senate.gov

How To . . .

Many congressional and other Government documents are available online. The Senate's website has resources that explain how to find materials related to the Senate and the general legislative process.


Legislation / Records

Research guides and resources are available online.


Member Profiles

The "Members of the U.S. Congress" database contains profiles for Senators who have held office since 1973 or were still serving in the 93d Congress. Users of the database can filter profiles by chamber, Congress, political affiliation, and State or U.S. Territory. A Member profile includes the following: dates of service, State represented, party affiliation, and a picture when available, as well as a link to the Member's entry in the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present" and a link to remarks made in the "Congressional Record." A profile also includes the list of legislation that the Member sponsored and cosponsored.



The "Congressional Directory," the "Senate Manual," and telephone directory for the U.S. Senate are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132.

https://bookstore.gpo.gov/ | Email: mainbks@gpo.gov

States Represented by Senators

The "States in the Senate" web page provides a short description of each State's history in the U.S. Senate.


Statistics / Lists

Statistics on and lists regarding a variety of topics—including cloture, nominations, roll call votes, Senate history, senators, and much more—are available online.



More information on legislation and the U.S. Senate is available on Congress.gov.


More information also is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.


The Senate's Sources of Information were updated 9–2020.