Getting Started

To begin searching within the
Government Manual simply type
in a keyword or phrase
to find your match.

International Monetary Fund

700 Nineteenth Street NW., Washington, DC 20431


Managing Director / Chair of the Executive BoardKristalina Georgieva
First Deputy Managing DirectorGeoffrey W.S. Okamoto
Chief Administrative Officer(vacancy)

Mitsuhiro Furusawa
Antoinette M. Sayeh
Tao Zhang

The above list of key personnel was updated 10–2020.

The above list of key personnel was updated 10–2020.

The International Monetary Fund fosters global monetary cooperation, secures financial stability, facilitates international trade, promotes employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduces poverty worldwide.


The Final Act of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, signed at Bretton Woods, NH, on July 22, 1944, set forth the original Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The Agreement became effective on December 27, 1945, when the President, authorized by the Bretton Woods Agreements Act (22 U.S.C. 286), accepted membership for the United States in the IMF. The inaugural meeting of the Board of Governors was held in March 1946, and the first meeting of the Executive Directors was held May 6, 1946.

On May 31, 1968, the Board of Governors approved an amendment to the Articles of Agreement for the establishment of a facility based on Special Drawing Rights (SDR) and for modification of certain rules and practices. The amendment became effective on July 28, 1969, and the Special Drawing Account opened on August 6, 1969. The Special Drawing Rights Act (22 U.S.C. 286 et seq.) authorized the United States to accept the amendment and participate in the Special Drawing Account.

On April 30, 1976, the Board of Governors approved a second amendment to the Articles of Agreement, which became effective on April 1, 1978. This amendment gave members the right to adopt exchange arrangements of their choice while placing certain obligations on them regarding their exchange rate policies, which the IMF was to monitor closely. The official price of gold was abolished, and the Special Drawing Account was promoted as the principal reserve asset of the international monetary system. The Bretton Woods Agreements Act Amendments (22 U.S.C. 286e-5) authorized the United States to accept this amendment.

On June 28, 1990, the Board of Governors approved a third amendment to the Articles of Agreement, which became effective on November 11, 1992. Under this amendment, a member's voting rights and certain related rights may be suspended by a 70-percent majority of the executive board if the member country has been declared ineligible to use the Fund's general resources and persists in its failure to fulfill any of its obligations under the Articles.

The IMF posts its organizational chart online.


The IMF has 189 member countries. It promotes international monetary cooperation through a permanent forum for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems; facilitates the expansion and balanced growth of international trade; promotes exchange rate stability; assists in the establishment of an open multilateral system of payments for current transactions among members; and gives confidence to members by making IMF resources temporarily available to them under adequate safeguards.

The IMF helps member countries correct imbalances in their international balances of payments. It periodically examines the economic developments and policies of its members, offers policy advice, and at a member's request and upon executive board approval, provides financial assistance through a variety of financial facilities designed to address specific problems. These financing mechanisms provide access to the Fund's general resources and offer short-term assistance during crises of market confidence, compensatory financing to countries suffering declines in export earnings, emergency assistance for countries recovering from natural disasters or armed conflict, and low-interest rate resources to support structural adjustment and promote growth in the poorest countries. The IMF also provides technical assistance and training to member countries.

Sources of Information

A–Z Index

The IMF's website has an alphabetical index to help visitors search for specific topics or browse content that aligns with their interests.


A catalog of the IMF's archives is available online.

At a Glance

Fast facts and an overview of the IMF's founding and mission, governance and organization, and core activities are available on "The IMF at a Glance" web page.


The IMF's blog offers insightful and analytical posts on economics and finance.

Bretton Woods Moment

In her video speech of October 15, 2020, Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva spoke of the necessity to seize "this new Bretton Woods moment" (approximately 4:20 into the video). The length of the entire speech is a little over 12 minutes.

Career Opportunities

In addition to economists and research assistants, the IMF relies on professionals with skills and expertise in a range of other fields: communications, facilities management, finance and accounting, human resources, information technology, language services, law, library science and archives, office assistance, procurement, security, and transportation and hospitality. Information on careers, current job vacancies, and recruitment programs is available online.

Climate Change

The IMF counts "Climate Change" as one of its six key issues.

Commodity Prices

The "IMF Primary Commodity Prices" web page offers easy access to data on primary commodity prices, the interactive commodity data portal, and the commodity terms of trade database.

Contact Information

Contact information for general, media, and other types of inquiries is available online. | Email:

Country Information

The IMF is an organization comprising 189 countries that, together, work to promote monetary cooperation, financial stability, international trade, employment and sustainable economic growth, and to reduce poverty. An alphabetical index of the participating countries and information on those countries are available on the IMF's website.


The IMF publishes data on IMF lending, exchange rates, and other economic and financial indicators.


The IMF counts the division along gender lines in labor markets worldwide as one of its six key issues.


The IMF maintains an online glossary of financial terms and acronyms.


James M. Boughton's "Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund 1979–1989" is accessible online.

A chronological history of the IMF is available online.

Language Resources

The IMF provides information on its website in Arabic, Chinese, French, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish. Language tags are visible at the top and bottom of the IMF's home page.

Negative Interest Rate Policy

IMF Working Papers describe research in progress and are published to elicit comments and encourage debate. The views expressed in working papers belong to the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its executive board, or IMF management. In their recent working paper "Enabling Deep Negative Rates to Fight Recessions: A Guide" (April 2019), Ruchir Agarwal and Miles S. Kimball wrote that "the option to enable deep negative rates will be critical for central banks to maintain effectiveness of monetary policy in the future and will help mitigate the hardships associated with prolonged recessions" (page 84).


The IMF posts podcasts, newsworthy items about various countries, and the latest news on its website.

The "What's New Archive" allows easy access to recently posted items of interest.


The IMF's "Finance and Development" magazine and "Fiscal Monitor" biannual report are available online in Portable Document Format (PDF). Its "New and Noteworthy" newsletter and other publications are also accessible online.

Site Map

The IMF site map allows visitors to look for specific topics or to browse for content that aligns with their interests.

Social Media

The "IMF Social Hub" allows easy access to the IMF's Facebook page, Instagram photos and videos, LinkedIn account, Tweets and replies, and YouTube channel.

Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)

A 5-minute video explaining the SDR, the international reserve asset that the IMF created to supplement the official reserves of its member countries, is available online.

U.S. Economy

On June 24, 2019, the IMF published its "United States: 2019 Article IV Consultation." The staff report for the consultation noted that the U.S. economy is undergoing the longest expansion in recorded history, unemployment is low, real wages are rising, and inflationary pressures remain subdued. It also notes that "the benefits from this decade-long expansion have not been shared as widely as they could. . . . Average life expectancy is falling, income and wealth polarization have increased, poverty has fallen but remains higher than in other advanced economies, social mobility has steadily eroded, and education and health outcomes are discouraging."


The IMF posts videos in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish on its website.

The Sources of Information were updated 10–2020.