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The Congress of the United States was created by Article I, section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787, providing that “All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."

The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789, in the Federal Hall in New York City. The membership then consisted of 20 Senators and 59 Representatives.*

* New York ratified the Constitution on July 26, 1788, but did not elect its Senators until July 15 and 16, 1789. North Carolina did not ratify the Constitution until November 21, 1789; Rhode Island ratified it on May 29, 1790.

Congressional Record

Proceedings of Congress are published in the Congressional Record, which is issued each day when Congress is in session. Publication of the Record began March 4, 1873. It was the first record of debate officially reported, printed, and published directly by the Federal Government. The Daily Digest of the Congressional Record, printed in the back of each issue of the Record, summarizes the proceedings of that day in each House and each of their committees and subcommittees, respectively. The Digest also presents the legislative program for each day and, at the end of the week, gives the program for the following week. Its publication was begun March 17, 1947.

Congressional Record (Bound), 1873–2016

Congressional Record (Daily), 1994–Present


Article I, section 4, of the Constitution makes it mandatory that "The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year. . . ." Under this provision, also, the date for convening Congress was designated originally as the first Monday in December, "unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day." Eighteen acts were passed, up to 1820, providing for the meeting of Congress on other days of the year. From 1820 to 1934, however, Congress met regularly on the first Monday in December. In 1934 the 20th amendment changed the convening of Congress to January 3, unless Congress "shall by law appoint a different day." In addition, the President, according to Article II, section 3, of the Constitution "may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper. . . ."

Powers of Congress

Article I, section 8, of the Constitution defines the powers of Congress. Included are the powers to assess and collect taxes—called the chief power; to regulate commerce, both interstate and foreign; to coin money; to establish post offices and post roads; to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court; to declare war; and to raise and maintain an army and navy. Congress is further empowered "To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;" and "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."

Amendments to the Constitution

Another power vested in the Congress is the right to propose amendments to the Constitution, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary. Should two-thirds of the State legislatures demand changes in the Constitution, it is the duty of Congress to call a constitutional convention. Proposed amendments shall be valid as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures or by conventions of three-fourths of the States, as one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by Congress.

Prohibitions Upon Congress

Article I, section 9, of the Constitution also imposes prohibitions upon Congress. "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." A bill of attainder or an ex post facto law cannot be passed. No export duty can be imposed. Ports of one State cannot be given preference over those of another State. "No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law. . . ." No title of nobility may be granted.

Rights of Members

According to Article I, section 6, Members of Congress are granted certain privileges. In no case, except in treason, felony, and breach of the peace, can Members be arrested while attending sessions of Congress "and in going to and returning from the same. . . ." Furthermore, the Members cannot be questioned in any other place for remarks made in Congress. Each House may expel a Member of its body by a two-thirds vote.

Enactment of Laws

In order to become law, all bills and joint resolutions, except those proposing a constitutional amendment, must pass both the House of Representatives and the Senate and either be signed by the President or be passed over the President's veto by a two-thirds vote of both Houses of Congress. Section 7 of Article I states: "If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law." When a bill or joint resolution is introduced in the House, the usual procedure for its enactment into law is as follows: assignment to House committee having jurisdiction; if favorably considered, it is reported to the House either in its original form or with recommended amendments; if the bill or resolution is passed by the House, it is messaged to the Senate and referred to the committee having jurisdiction; in the Senate committee the bill, if favorably considered, may be reported in the form as received from the House, or with recommended amendments; the approved bill or resolution is reported to the Senate, and if passed by that body, is returned to the House; if one body does not accept the amendments to a bill by the other body, a conference committee comprised of Members of both bodies is usually appointed to effect a compromise; when the bill or joint resolution is finally approved by both Houses, it is signed by the Speaker (or Speaker pro tempore) and the Vice President (or President pro tempore or acting President pro tempore) and is presented to the President; and once the President's signature is affixed, the measure becomes a law. If the President vetoes the bill, it cannot become a law unless it is re-passed by a two-thirds vote of both Houses.

The Senate

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20510


Constitutionally Mandated Officers

Constitutionally Mandated Officers
President of the Senate / Vice President of the United StatesKamala D. Harris

President pro temporePatrick J. Leahy

Political Party Leaders

Political Party Leaders
Majority Leader—DemocratCharles E. Schumer

Minority Leader—RepublicanA. Mitchell McConnell

Senate-Elected Officers and Officials

Senate-Elected Officers and Officials
ChaplainBarry C. Black
ParliamentarianElizabeth C. MacDonough

for the MajorityGary B. Myrick
for the MinorityRobert M. Duncan
for the SenateSonceria Berry

Sergeant at ArmsJennifer A. Hemingway, Acting
Organizational Chart


The Senate comprises 100 Members, 2 from each State. Senators are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. There are three classes of Senators, and a new class is elected every 2 years. Senators were originally chosen by the State legislatures. The 17th amendment, which became part of the Constitution in 1913, made their election a function of the people.

A Senator must be a resident of the State that he or she represents. A Senator also must be at least 30 years of age and have been a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years.


The Vice President of the United States is the Presiding Officer of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the duties are taken over by a President pro tempore, elected by that body, or someone designated by the President pro tempore.

The positions of Senate Majority and Minority Leader have been in existence only since the early years of the 20th century. Leaders are elected at the beginning of each new Congress by a majority vote of the Senators in their political party. In cooperation with their party organizations, Leaders are responsible for the design and achievement of a legislative program. This involves managing the flow of legislation, expediting noncontroversial measures, and keeping Members informed regarding proposed action on pending business. Each Leader serves as an ex officio member of his party's policymaking and organizational bodies and is aided by an assistant floor leader (whip) and a party secretary.

The Secretary of the Senate, elected by vote of the Senate, performs the duties of the Presiding Officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President and pending the election of a President pro tempore. The Secretary is the custodian of the seal of the Senate, draws requisitions on the Secretary of the Treasury for moneys appropriated for the compensation of Senators, officers, and employees, and for the contingent expenses of the Senate, and is empowered to administer oaths to any officer of the Senate and to any witness produced before it. The Secretary's executive duties include certification of extracts from the Journal of the Senate; the attestation of bills and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions; in impeachment trials, issuance, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, of all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate; and certification to the President of the United States of the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

The Sergeant at Arms, elected by vote of the Senate, serves as the executive, chief law enforcement, and protocol officer and is the principal administrative manager for most support services in the Senate. As executive officer, the Sergeant at Arms has custody of the Senate gavel; enforces Senate rules and regulations as they pertain to the Senate Chamber, the Senate wing of the Capitol, and the Senate office buildings; and subject to the Presiding Officer, maintains order on the Senate floor, Chamber, and galleries. As chief law enforcement officer of the Senate, the Sergeant at Arms is authorized to maintain security in the Capitol and all Senate buildings, as well as to protect Senators; to arrest and detain any person violating Senate rules; and to locate absentee Senators for a quorum. The Sergeant at Arms serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board and as its chairman each odd year. As protocol officer, the Sergeant at Arms escorts the President and other heads of state or official guests of the Senate who are attending official functions in the Capitol; makes arrangements for funerals of Senators who die in office; and assists in planning the inauguration of the President and organizing the swearing-in and orientation programs for newly elected Senators.


The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 16 standing committees in the Senate. The standing committees of the Senate are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in each House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.
Committee Chair Website
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Deborah A. Stabenow
Appropriations Patrick J. Leahy
Armed Services John F. Reed
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Sherrod C. Brown
Budget Bernard Sanders
Commerce, Science, and Transportation Maria E. Cantwell
Energy and Natural Resources Joseph A. Manchin III
Environment and Public Works Thomas R. Carper
Finance Ronald L. Wyden
Foreign Relations Robert Menendez
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Patricia L. Murray
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Gary C. Peters
Indian Affairs Brian E. Schatz
Judiciary Richard J. Durbin
Rules and Administration Amy J. Klobuchar
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Benjamin L. Cardin
Veterans' Affairs R. Jon Tester

Special Powers

Under the Constitution, the Senate is granted certain powers not accorded to the House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves certain Presidential appointments by majority vote, and treaties must be concurred in by a two-thirds vote.

List of U.S. Senators

Information on web pages may be more accurate and current.
Richard C. Shelby 2023—Republican
Thomas H. Tuberville 2027—Republican
Lisa A. Murkowski 2023—Republican
Daniel S. Sullivan 2027—Republican
Mark E. Kelly 2023—Democrat
Kyrsten Sinema 2025—Democrat
John N. Boozman 2023—Republican
Thomas B. Cotton 2027—Republican
Dianne Feinstein 2025—Democrat
Alejandro Padilla 2023—Democrat
Michael F. Bennet 2023—Democrat
John W. Hickenlooper 2027—Democrat
Richard L. Blumenthal 2023—Democrat
Christopher S. Murphy 2025—Democrat
Thomas R. Carper 2025—Democrat
Christopher A. Coons 2027—Democrat
Marco A. Rubio 2023—Republican
Richard L. Scott 2025—Republican
T. Jonathan Ossoff 2027—Democrat
Raphael G. Warnock 2023—Democrat
Mazie K. Hirono 2025—Democrat
Brian E. Schatz 2023—Democrat
Michael D. Crapo 2023—Republican
James E. Risch 2027—Republican
L. Tammy Duckworth 2023—Democrat
Richard J. Durbin 2027—Democrat
Michael K. Braun 2025—Republican
Todd C. Young 2023—Republican
Joni K. Ernst 2027—Republican
Charles E. Grassley 2023—Republican
Roger W. Marshall 2027—Republican
Gerald W. Moran 2023—Republican
A. Mitchell McConnell 2027—Republican
Randal H. Paul 2023—Republican
William M. Cassidy 2027—Republican
John N. Kennedy 2023—Republican
Susan M. Collins 2027—Republican
Angus S. King, Jr. 2025—Independent
Benjamin L. Cardin 2025—Democrat
Christopher Van Hollen, Jr. 2023—Democrat
Edward J. Markey 2027—Democrat
Elizabeth A. Warren 2025—Democrat
Gary C. Peters 2027—Democrat
Deborah A. Stabenow 2025—Democrat
Amy J. Klobuchar 2025—Democrat
Tina F. Smith 2027—Democrat
Cindy Hyde-Smith 2027—Republican
Roger F. Wicker 2025—Republican
Roy D. Blunt 2023—Republican
Joshua D. Hawley 2025—Republican
Steven D. Daines 2027—Republican
R. Jon Tester 2025—Democrat
Debra S. Fischer 2025—Republican
Benjamin E. Sasse 2027—Republican
Catherine Cortez Masto 2023—Democrat
Jacklyn S. Rosen 2025—Democrat
New Hampshire
Margaret Wood Hassan 2023—Democrat
C. Jeanne Shaheen 2027—Democrat
New Jersey
Cory A. Booker 2027—Democrat
Robert Menendez 2025—Democrat
New Mexico
Martin T. Heinrich 2025—Democrat
Benjamin R. Luján 2027—Democrat
New York
Kirsten E. Gillibrand 2025—Democrat
Charles E. Schumer 2023—Democrat
North Carolina
Richard M. Burr 2023—Republican
Thomas R. Tillis 2027—Republican
North Dakota
Kevin Cramer 2025—Republican
John H. Hoeven III 2023—Republican
Sherrod C. Brown 2025—Democrat
Robert J. Portman 2023—Republican
James M. Inhofe 2027—Republican
James Lankford 2023—Republican
Jeffrey A. Merkley 2027—Democrat
Ronald L. Wyden 2023—Democrat
Robert P. Casey, Jr. 2025—Democrat
Patrick J. Toomey 2023—Republican
Rhode Island
John F. Reed 2027—Democrat
Sheldon Whitehouse 2025—Democrat
South Carolina
Lindsey O. Graham 2027—Republican
Timothy E. Scott 2023—Republican
South Dakota
M. Michael Rounds 2027—Republican
John R. Thune 2023—Republican
Marsha W. Blackburn 2025—Republican
William F. Hagerty IV 2027—Republican
John Cornyn III 2027—Republican
R. Edward Cruz 2025—Republican
Michael S. Lee 2023—Republican
W. Milton Romney 2025—Republican
Patrick J. Leahy 2023—Democrat
Bernard Sanders 2025—Independent
Timothy M. Kaine 2025—Democrat
Mark R. Warner 2027—Democrat
Maria E. Cantwell 2025—Democrat
Patricia L. Murray 2023—Democrat
West Virginia
Shelley Moore Capito 2027—Republican
Joseph A. Manchin III 2025—Democrat
Tammy S. Baldwin 2025—Democrat
Ronald H. Johnson 2023—Republican
John A. Barrasso III 2025—Republican
Cynthia M. Lummis 2027—Republican
* * *
Republicans are 50; Democrats are 48; Independents are 2; and there are no vacancies.

Sources of Information


The Senate's collections of ephemera, decorative art, graphic art, paintings, and sculpture can be viewed online. | Email:

Biographical Directory

The online "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present," allows visitors to search for Members of Congress—past and present—by first or last name, political affiliation, position, State, or year or Congress.

Books by Senators

A bibliography of books that Senators who are currently serving in the U.S. Congress have written is available online.

Campaign Finance

The Federal Election Commission maintains a campaign finance database that contains information on candidates, including senatorial candidates, who file reports with the Commission. Users of the online "Candidate and Committee Viewer" can sort data and download them. The data presentations consist of biennial summaries, report summaries, and report images and downloads.

Campaign Websites

The Library of Congress maintains a database of "Archived Web Sites" that includes thousands of official campaign websites. Former senatorial candidates' websites are part of this collection.

Career Opportunities

Information on fellowships, internships, and job openings is available online.

Chaplains of the Senate

Nine of the first ten Senate Chaplains were Episcopalian; one was Presbyterian. Based on a simple denominational count, the history of the Senate chaplaincy has been dominated by Episcopalians (19), Methodists (17), and Presbyterians (14). The total number of chaplains who have filled the office of Senate Chaplain to date is 62.

Children's Books

Links to educational resources are available on the Senate's website.


Information on Senate committees is available online.

Congressional Directory

Prepared by the Joint Committee on Printing, the "Congressional Directory" is the official directory of the U.S. Congress. The Directory contains a short biography of each Member of the Senate; committee memberships, terms of service, administrative assistants and secretaries, and room and telephone numbers for Senators; lists of court officials, military establishments, and other Federal departments and agencies, including District of Columbia government officials, governors of States and territories, foreign diplomats, and members of the press, radio, and television galleries.

Congressional Record

Starting with the year 1995, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on

Starting with the year 1994, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.

Contact Information

The address for sending postal correspondence to a Senator or Senate committee is available online. Secretary of the Senate: Phone, 202-224-2115. U.S. Capitol switchboard: Phone, 202-224-3121.

Phone numbers, postal addresses, and online forms are available for contacting a Senator.

An online list of States also provides web forms for contacting a Senator via email.


A Senate glossary is available online.


The Senate Historical Office has told the history of the Senate, from the First Federal Congress of 1789 through the early 21st century; explained its traditions; described the individuals who served in its Chamber, and examined the major issues that confronted these national leaders. | Email:

How To . . .

Many congressional and other Government documents are available online. The Senate's website has resources that explain how to find materials related to the Senate and the general legislative process.

Legislation / Records

Research guides and resources are available online.

Member Profiles

The "Members of the U.S. Congress" database contains profiles for Senators who have held office since 1973 or were still serving in the 93d Congress. Users of the database can filter profiles by chamber, Congress, political affiliation, and State or U.S. Territory. A Member profile includes the following: dates of service, State represented, party affiliation, and a picture when available, as well as a link to the Member's entry in the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present" and a link to remarks made in the "Congressional Record." A profile also includes the list of legislation that the Member sponsored and cosponsored.


The "Congressional Directory," the "Senate Manual," and telephone directory for the U.S. Senate are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132. | Email:

States Represented by Senators

The "States in the Senate" web page provides a short description of each State's history in the U.S. Senate.

Statistics / Lists

Statistics on and lists regarding a variety of topics—including cloture, nominations, roll call votes, Senate history, senators, and much more—are available online.


More information on legislation and the U.S. Senate is available on

More information also is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.

The House of Representatives

The Capitol, Washington, DC 20515



Speaker of the HouseNancy P. Pelosi


Majority LeaderSteny H. Hoyer
Minority LeaderKevin O. McCarthy

Appointed Officials

Appointed Officials
General CounselDouglas N. Letter
HistorianMatthew A. Wasniewski
Inspector GeneralMichael Ptasienski
ParliamentarianJason A. Smith

Elected Officers

Elected Officers
ChaplainMargaret G. Kibben
Chief Administrative OfficerCatherine L. Szpindor
ClerkCheryl L. Johnson
Sergeant at ArmsTimothy P. Blodgett


The House of Representatives comprises 435 Representatives. The number representing each State is determined by population, but every State is entitled to at least one Representative. Members are elected by the people for 2-year terms, all terms running for the same period. Representatives must be residents of the State from which they are chosen. In addition, a Representative must be at least 25 years of age and must have been a citizen for at least 7 years.

A Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico (elected for a 4-year term) and Delegates from American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands complete the composition of the Congress of the United States. Delegates are elected for a term of 2 years. The Resident Commissioner and Delegates may take part in the floor discussions, but have no vote in the full House. They do, however, vote in the committees to which they are assigned.


The Presiding Officer of the House of Representatives, the Speaker, is elected by the House. The Speaker may designate any Member of the House to act in the Speaker's absence.

The House leadership is structured essentially the same as the Senate, with the Members in the political parties responsible for the election of their respective leader and whips.

The elected officers of the House of Representatives include the Clerk, the Sergeant at Arms, the Chief Administrative Officer, and the Chaplain.

The Clerk is custodian of the seal of the House and administers the primary legislative activities of the House. These duties include accepting the credentials of the Members-elect and calling the Members to order at the commencement of the first session of each Congress; keeping the Journal; taking all votes and certifying the passage of bills; and processing all legislation. Through various departments, the Clerk is also responsible for floor and committee reporting services; legislative information and reference services; the administration of House reports pursuant to House rules and certain legislation including the Ethics in Government Act and the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995; and the distribution of House documents. The Clerk is also charged with supervision of the offices vacated by Members due to death, resignation, or expulsion.

The Sergeant at Arms maintains the order of the House under the direction of the Speaker and is the keeper of the Mace. As a member of the U.S. Capitol Police Board, the Sergeant at Arms is the chief law enforcement officer for the House and serves as Board Chairman each even year. The ceremonial and protocol duties parallel those of the Senate Sergeant at Arms and include arranging the inauguration of the President of the United States, Joint Sessions of Congress, visits to the House of heads of state, and funerals of Members of Congress. The Sergeant at Arms enforces the rules relating to the privileges of the Hall of the House, including admission to the galleries, oversees garage and parking security of the House, and distributes all House staff identification cards.


The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are 19 standing committees in the House of Representatives. The standing committees of the House of Representatives are shown in the list below. In addition, there are two select committees in the House and various congressional commissions and joint committees composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees. The membership of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed under the provisions of the measure establishing them.

Each bill and resolution is usually referred to the appropriate committee, which may report a bill out in its original form, favorably or unfavorably, recommend amendments, report original measures, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee without action.

Committee Chair Website
Agriculture David A. Scott
Appropriations Rosa L. DeLauro
Armed Services D. Adam Smith
Budget John A. Yarmuth
Education and Labor Robert C. Scott
Energy and Commerce Frank J. Pallone, Jr.
Ethics Theodore E. Deutch
Financial Services Maxine M. Waters
Foreign Affairs Gregory W. Meeks
Homeland Security Bennie G. Thompson
House Administration Zoe Lofgren
Judiciary Jerrold L. Nadler
Natural Resources Raúl M. Grijalva
Oversight and Reform Carolyn B. Maloney
Rules James P. McGovern
Science, Space, and Technology Eddie B. Johnson
Small Business Nydia M. Velázquez
Transportation and Infrastructure Peter A. DeFazio
Veterans' Affairs Mark A. Takano
Ways and Means Richard E. Neal

Special Powers

The House of Representatives is granted the power of originating all bills for the raising of revenue. Both Houses of Congress act in impeachment proceedings, which, according to the Constitution, may be instituted against the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeachment, and the Senate has the sole power to try impeachments.

List of U.S. Representatives

Information on may be more accurate and current.

Information on the Office of the Clerk's website may be more accurate and current.
Jerry L. Carl, Jr. 01—Republican
F. Barry Moore 02—Republican
Michael D. Rogers 03—Republican
Robert B. Aderholt 04—Republican
Morris J. Brooks, Jr. 05—Republican
Gary J. Palmer 06—Republican
Terrycina A. Sewell 07—Democrat
Donald E. Young At Large—Republican
American Samoa
Amata Coleman Radewagen Delegate—Republican
Thomas C. O'Halleran 01—Democrat
Ann L. Kirkpatrick 02—Democrat
Raúl M. Grijalva 03—Democrat
Paul A. Gosar 04—Republican
Andrew S. Biggs 05—Republican
David Schweikert 06—Republican
Ruben M. Gallego 07—Democrat
Debra Kay Lesko 08—Republican
Gregory J. Stanton 09—Democrat
Eric A. Crawford 01—Republican
J. French Hill 02—Republican
Stephen A. Womack 03—Republican
Bruce E. Westerman 04—Republican
Douglas L. LaMalfa 01—Republican
Jared W. Huffman 02—Democrat
John R. Garamendi 03—Democrat
Thomas M. McClintock 04—Republican
Michael C. Thompson 05—Democrat
Doris O. Matsui 06—Democrat
Amerish B. Bera 07—Democrat
Jay P. Obernolte 08—Republican
Gerald M. McNerney 09—Democrat
Joshua K. Harder 10—Democrat
Mark J. DeSaulnier 11—Democrat
Nancy P. Pelosi 12—Democrat
Barbara J. Lee 13—Democrat
K. Jacqueline Speier 14—Democrat
Eric M. Swalwell 15—Democrat
James M. Costa 16—Democrat
Ro Khanna 17—Democrat
Anna G. Eshoo 18—Democrat
Zoe Lofgren 19—Democrat
James V. Panetta 20—Democrat
David G. Valadao 21—Republican
Devin G. Nunes 22—Republican
Kevin O. McCarthy 23—Republican
Salud O. Carbajal 24—Democrat
Michael Garcia 25—Republican
Julia A. Brownley 26—Democrat
Judy M. Chu 27—Democrat
Adam B. Schiff 28—Democrat
Antonio Cárdenas 29—Democrat
Bradley J. Sherman 30—Democrat
Peter R. Aguilar 31—Democrat
Grace F. Napolitano 32—Democrat
Ted W. Lieu 33—Democrat
Jimmy Gomez 34—Democrat
Norma J. Torres 35—Democrat
Raul Ruiz 36—Democrat
Karen R. Bass 37—Democrat
Linda T. Sánchez 38—Democrat
Young Kim 39—Republican
Lucille Roybal-Allard 40—Democrat
Mark A. Takano 41—Democrat
Kenneth S. Calvert 42—Republican
Maxine M. Waters 43—Democrat
Nanette Diaz Barragán 44—Democrat
Katherine M. Porter 45—Democrat
J. Luis Correa 46—Democrat
Alan S. Lowenthal 47—Democrat
Michelle Steel 48—Republican
Michael T. Levin 49—Democrat
Darrell Issa 50—Republican
Juan C. Vargas 51—Democrat
Scott H. Peters 52—Democrat
Sara Jacobs 53—Democrat
Diana L. DeGette 01—Democrat
Joseph D. Neguse 02—Democrat
Lauren Boebert 03—Republican
Kenneth R. Buck 04—Republican
Douglas L. Lamborn 05—Republican
Jason A. Crow 06—Democrat
Edwin G. Perlmutter 07—Democrat
John B. Larson 01—Democrat
Joseph D. Courtney 02—Democrat
Rosa L. DeLauro 03—Democrat
James A. Himes 04—Democrat
Jahana F. Hayes 05—Democrat
Lisa Blunt Rochester At Large—Democrat
District of Columbia
Eleanor Holmes Norton Delegate—Democrat
Matthew L. Gaetz II 01—Republican
Neal P. Dunn 02—Republican
Kathryn Cammack 03—Republican
John H. Rutherford 04—Republican
Alfred J. Lawson, Jr. 05—Democrat
Michael G. Waltz 06—Republican
Stephanie N. Murphy 07—Democrat
William J. Posey 08—Republican
Darren M. Soto 09—Democrat
Valdez Butler Demings 10—Democrat
Daniel A. Webster 11—Republican
Gus M. Bilirakis 12—Republican
Charlie J. Crist, Jr. 13—Democrat
Katherine A. Castor 14—Democrat
C. Scott Franklin 15—Republican
Vernon G. Buchanan 16—Republican
W. Gregory Steube 17—Republican
Brian J. Mast 18—Republican
Byron Donalds 19—Republican
Alcee L. Hastings 20—Democrat
Lois J. Frankel 21—Democrat
Theodore E. Deutch 22—Democrat
Deborah Wasserman Schultz 23—Democrat
Frederica S. Wilson 24—Democrat
Mario R. Díaz-Balart 25—Republican
Carlos A. Gimenez 26—Republican
Maria E. Salazar 27—Republican
Earl L. Carter 01—Republican
Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. 02—Democrat
A. Drew Ferguson IV 03—Republican
Henry C. Johnson, Jr. 04—Democrat
Nikema Williams 05—Democrat
Lucia K. McBath 06—Democrat
Carolyn Bourdeaux 07—Democrat
J. Austin Scott 08—Republican
Andrew S. Clyde 09—Republican
Jody B. Hice 10—Republican
Barry D. Loudermilk 11—Republican
Richard W. Allen 12—Republican
David A. Scott 13—Democrat
Marjorie T. Greene 14—Republican
Michael F.Q. San Nicolas Delegate—Democrat
Edward E. Case 01—Democrat
Kaialiʻi Kahele 02—Democrat
Russell M. Fulcher 01—Republican
Michael K. Simpson 02—Republican
Bobby L. Rush 01—Democrat
Robin L. Kelly 02—Democrat
Marie Newman 03—Democrat
Jesús G. García 04—Democrat
Michael B. Quigley 05—Democrat
Sean T. Casten 06—Democrat
Danny K. Davis 07—Democrat
S. Raja Krishnamoorthi 08—Democrat
Janice D. Schakowsky 09—Democrat
Bradley S. Schneider 10—Democrat
William G. Foster 11—Democrat
Michael J. Bost 12—Republican
Rodney L. Davis 13—Republican
Lauren Underwood 14—Democrat
Mary E. Miller 15—Republican
Adam D. Kinzinger 16—Republican
Cheryl C. Bustos 17—Democrat
Darin M. LaHood 18—Republican
Frank J. Mrvan 01—Democrat
Jacqueline S. Walorski 02—Republican
James E. Banks 03—Republican
James R. Baird 04—Republican
Victoria Spartz 05—Republican
Gregory J. Pence 06—Republican
André D. Carson 07—Democrat
Larry D. Bucshon 08—Republican
Joseph A. Hollingsworth III 09—Republican
Ashley E. Hinson 01—Republican
Mariannette J. Miller-Meeks 02—Republican
Cynthia L. Axne 03—Democrat
Randall L. Feenstra 04—Republican
Tracey R. Mann 01—Republican
Jacob A.J. LaTurner 02—Republican
Sharice L. Davids 03—Democrat
Ronald G. Estes 04—Republican
James R. Comer 01—Republican
S. Brett Guthrie 02—Republican
John A. Yarmuth 03—Democrat
Thomas H. Massie 04—Republican
Harold D. Rogers 05—Republican
Garland H. Barr IV 06—Republican
Stephen J. Scalise 01—Republican
(vacancy) 02— https://
G. Clay Higgins 03—Republican
J. Michael Johnson 04—Republican
(Julia Letlow—Representative-elect) 05—Republican https://
Garret N. Graves 06—Republican
Chellie M. Pingree 01—Democrat
Jared F. Golden 02—Democrat
Andrew P. Harris 01—Republican
C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger 02—Democrat
John P. Sarbanes 03—Democrat
Anthony G. Brown 04—Democrat
Steny H. Hoyer 05—Democrat
David J. Trone 06—Democrat
Kweisi Mfume 07—Democrat
Jamin B. Raskin 08—Democrat
Richard E. Neal 01—Democrat
James P. McGovern 02—Democrat
Lori L. Trahan 03—Democrat
Jacob D. Auchincloss 04—Democrat
Katherine M. Clark 05—Democrat
Seth W. Moulton 06—Democrat
Ayanna S. Pressley 07—Democrat
Stephen F. Lynch 08—Democrat
William R. Keating 09—Democrat
John W. Bergman 01—Republican
William P. Huizenga 02—Republican
Peter J. Meijer 03—Republican
John R. Moolenaar 04—Republican
Daniel T. Kildee 05—Democrat
Frederick S. Upton 06—Republican
Timothy L. Walberg 07—Republican
Elissa B. Slotkin 08—Democrat
Andrew S. Levin 09—Democrat
Lisa C. McClain 10—Republican
Haley M. Stevens 11—Democrat
Deborah A. Dingell 12—Democrat
Rashida H. Tlaib 13—Democrat
Brenda L. Lawrence 14—Democrat
James L. Hagedorn 01—Republican
Angela D. Craig 02—Democrat
Dean B. Phillips 03—Democrat
Betty L. McCollum 04—Democrat
Ilhan A. Omar 05—Democrat
Thomas E. Emmer, Jr. 06—Republican
Michelle L. Fischbach 07—Republican
Peter A. Stauber 08—Republican
J. Trent Kelly 01—Republican
Bennie G. Thompson 02—Democrat
Michael P. Guest 03—Republican
Steven M. Palazzo 04—Republican
Cori A. Bush 01—Democrat
Ann L. Wagner 02—Republican
W. Blaine Luetkemeyer 03—Republican
Vicky J. Hartzler 04—Republican
Emanuel Cleaver II 05—Democrat
Samuel B. Graves, Jr. 06—Republican
William H. Long 07—Republican
Jason T. Smith 08—Republican
Matthew M. Rosendale, Sr. At Large—Republican
Jeffrey L. Fortenberry 01—Republican
Donald J. Bacon 02—Republican
Adrian M. Smith 03—Republican
A. Costandina Titus 01—Democrat
Mark E. Amodei 02—Republican
Suzanne K. Lee 03—Democrat
Steven A. Horsford 04—Democrat
New Hampshire
Christopher C. Pappas 01—Democrat
Ann McLane Kuster 02—Democrat
New Jersey
Donald W. Norcross 01—Democrat
Jefferson H. Van Drew 02—Republican
Andrew Kim 03—Democrat
Christopher H. Smith 04—Republican
Joshua S. Gottheimer 05—Democrat
Frank J. Pallone, Jr. 06—Democrat
Tomasz P. Malinowski 07—Democrat
Albio B. Sires 08—Democrat
William J. Pascrell, Jr. 09—Democrat
Donald M. Payne, Jr. 10—Democrat
R. Michelle Sherrill 11—Democrat
Bonnie Watson Coleman 12—Democrat
New Mexico
(vacancy) 01— https://
S. Yvette Herrell 02—Republican
Teresa I. Leger Fernandez 03—Democrat
New York
Lee M. Zeldin 01—Republican
Andrew R. Garbarino 02—Republican
Thomas R. Suozzi 03—Democrat
Kathleen M. Rice 04—Democrat
Gregory W. Meeks 05—Democrat
Grace Meng 06—Democrat
Nydia M. Velázquez 07—Democrat
Hakeem S. Jeffries 08—Democrat
Yvette D. Clarke 09—Democrat
Jerrold L. Nadler 10—Democrat
Nicole Malliotakis 11—Republican
Carolyn B. Maloney 12—Democrat
Adriano D. Espaillat 13—Democrat
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez 14—Democrat
Ritchie J. Torres 15—Democrat
Jamaal Bowman 16—Democrat
Mondaire Jones 17—Democrat
Sean P. Maloney 18—Democrat
Antonio Delgado 19—Democrat
Paul D. Tonko 20—Democrat
Elise M. Stefanik 21—Republican
Claudia Tenney 22—Republican
Thomas W. Reed II 23—Republican
John M. Katko 24—Republican
Joseph D. Morelle 25—Democrat
Brian M. Higgins 26—Democrat
Christopher L. Jacobs 27—Republican
North Carolina
George K. Butterfield 01—Democrat
Deborah K. Ross 02—Democrat
Gregory F. Murphy 03—Republican
David E. Price 04—Democrat
Virginia A. Foxx 05—Republican
Kathy A. Manning 06—Democrat
David C. Rouzer 07—Republican
Richard L. Hudson, Jr. 08—Republican
J. Daniel Bishop 09—Republican
Patrick T. McHenry 10—Republican
D. Madison Cawthorn 11—Republican
Alma S. Adams 12—Democrat
Theodore P. Budd 13—Republican
North Dakota
Kelly Armstrong At Large—Republican
Northern Mariana Islands
Gregorio K.C. Sablan Delegate—Democrat
Steven J. Chabot 01—Republican
Brad R. Wenstrup 02—Republican
Joyce B. Beatty 03—Democrat
James D. Jordan 04—Republican
Robert E. Latta 05—Republican
William L. Johnson 06—Republican
Robert B. Gibbs 07—Republican
Warren E. Davidson 08—Republican
Marcia C. Kaptur 09—Democrat
Michael R. Turner 10—Republican
(vacancy) 11— https://
W. Troy Balderson 12—Republican
Timothy J. Ryan 13—Democrat
David P. Joyce 14—Republican
Steven E. Stivers 15—Republican
Anthony Gonzalez 16—Republican
Kevin R. Hern 01—Republican
Markwayne Mullin 02—Republican
Frank D. Lucas 03—Republican
Thomas J. Cole 04—Republican
Stephanie I. Bice 05—Republican
Suzanne M. Bonamici 01—Democrat
Cliff S. Bentz 02—Republican
Earl Blumenauer 03—Democrat
Peter A. DeFazio 04—Democrat
W. Kurt Schrader 05—Democrat
Brian K. Fitzpatrick 01—Republican
Brendan F. Boyle 02—Democrat
Dwight E. Evans 03—Democrat
Madeleine C. Dean 04—Democrat
Mary Gay Scanlon 05—Democrat
Christina J. Houlahan 06—Democrat
Susan E. Wild 07—Democrat
Matthew A. Cartwright 08—Democrat
Daniel P. Meuser 09—Republican
Scott G. Perry 10—Republican
Lloyd K. Smucker 11—Republican
Frederick B. Keller 12—Republican
John P. Joyce 13—Republican
Guy L. Reschenthaler 14—Republican
Glenn W. Thompson 15—Republican
George J. Kelly, Jr. 16—Republican
Conor J. Lamb 17—Democrat
Michael F. Doyle 18—Democrat
Puerto Rico
Jenniffer A. González-Colón Resident Commissioner—Republican
Rhode Island
David N. Cicilline 01—Democrat
James R. Langevin 02—Democrat
South Carolina
Nancy R. Mace 01—Republican
Addison G. Wilson 02—Republican
Jeffrey D. Duncan 03—Republican
William R. Timmons 04—Republican
Ralph W. Norman, Jr. 05—Republican
James E. Clyburn 06—Democrat
H. Thompson Rice, Jr. 07—Republican
South Dakota
Dustin M. Johnson At Large—Republican
Diana L. Harshbarger 01—Republican
Timothy F. Burchett 02—Republican
Charles J. Fleischmann 03—Republican
Scott E. DesJarlais 04—Republican
James H.S. Cooper 05—Democrat
John W. Rose 06—Republican
Mark E. Green 07—Republican
David F. Kustoff 08—Republican
Stephen I. Cohen 09—Democrat
Louis B. Gohmert, Jr. 01—Republican
Daniel R. Crenshaw 02—Republican
N. Vancampen Taylor 03—Republican
Patrick E. Fallon 04—Republican
Lance Gooden 05—Republican
(vacancy) 06—
Elizabeth P. Fletcher 07—Democrat
Kevin P. Brady 08—Republican
Alexander N. Green 09—Democrat
Michael T. McCaul 10—Republican
August L. Pfluger 11—Republican
Kay M. Granger 12—Republican
Ronny L. Jackson 13—Republican
Randy K. Weber, Sr. 14—Republican
Vicente Gonzalez 15—Democrat
Veronica Escobar 16—Democrat
Peter A. Sessions 17—Republican
Sheila Jackson Lee 18—Democrat
Jodey Cook Arrington 19—Republican
Joaquin Castro 20—Democrat
Charles E. Roy 21—Republican
Troy E. Nehls 22—Republican
E. Anthony Gonzalez 23—Republican
Elizabeth A. Van Duyne 24—Republican
J. Roger Williams 25—Republican
Michael C. Burgess 26—Republican
Michael J. Cloud 27—Republican
Enrique R. Cuellar 28—Democrat
Sylvia R. Garcia 29—Democrat
Eddie B. Johnson 30—Democrat
John R. Carter 31—Republican
Colin Z. Allred 32—Democrat
Marc A. Veasey 33—Democrat
Filemón B. Vela, Jr. 34—Democrat
Lloyd A. Doggett II 35—Democrat
Brian Babin 36—Republican
Blake D. Moore 01—Republican
Christopher D. Stewart 02—Republican
John R. Curtis 03—Republican
C. Burgess Owens 04—Republican
Peter F. Welch At Large—Democrat
Virgin Islands
Stacey E. Plaskett Delegate—Democrat
Robert J. Wittman 01—Republican
Elaine G. Luria 02—Democrat
Robert C. Scott 03—Democrat
A. Donald McEachin 04—Democrat
Robert G. Good 05—Republican
Benjamin L. Cline 06—Republican
Abigail D. Spanberger 07—Democrat
Donald S. Beyer, Jr. 08—Democrat
H. Morgan Griffith 09—Republican
Jennifer L. Wexton 10—Democrat
Gerald E. Connolly 11—Democrat
Suzan K. DelBene 01—Democrat
Richard R. Larsen 02—Democrat
Jaime L. Herrera Beutler 03—Republican
Daniel M. Newhouse 04—Republican
Cathy A. McMorris Rodgers 05—Republican
Derek C. Kilmer 06—Democrat
Pramila Jayapal 07—Democrat
Kimberly M. Schrier 08—Democrat
D. Adam Smith 09—Democrat
Marilyn Strickland 10—Democrat
West Virginia
David B. McKinley 01—Republican
Alexander X. Mooney 02—Republican
Carol D. Miller 03—Republican
Bryan G. Steil 01—Republican
Mark Pocan 02—Democrat
Ronald J. Kind 03—Democrat
Gwendolynne S. Moore 04—Democrat
Scott L. Fitzgerald 05—Republican
Glenn S. Grothman 06—Republican
Thomas P. Tiffany 07—Republican
Michael J. Gallagher 08—Republican
Elizabeth L. Cheney At Large—Republican
* * *
Democrats are 219; Republicans are 211; and 5 districts do not have a Representative.
The Resident Commissioner and Delegates are not counted as Members.

Sources of Information

Additional Resources

The "House of Representatives Resources" web page contains links that allow easy access to calendars, committee assignments, current House floor activities, directories, documents, profiles, statistics, texts of bills, the Office of the Clerk and the House Library, and information on committee meetings, House history, precedents, procedures, rules, salaries, Speakers of the House, vacancies, and information for those who are planning a visit to the U.S. Capitol.

Art Competition

Each spring, the Congressional Institute sponsors a nationwide high school visual art competition to recognize and encourage artistic talent. Students submit their entries to their Representative’s office, and panels of district artists select the winning artwork, which is displayed at the U.S. Capitol for 1 year.

Campaign Finance

The Federal Election Commission maintains a campaign finance database that contains information on candidates, including congressional candidates, who file reports with the Commission. Users of the online "Candidate and Committee Viewer" can sort data and download them. The data presentations consist of biennial summaries, report summaries, and report images and downloads.

Campaign Websites

The Library of Congress maintains a "Web Archives" that includes thousands of official campaign websites. Former congressional candidates' websites are part of this collection.

Career Opportunities

The House Vacancy Announcement and Placement Service assists House Members, committees, and leadership by posting job vacancies and maintaining a resume bank. The Service provides confidential referral of resumes when House offices request them. Information on submitting a resume is available online.

To apply for positions with House organizations, read the individual vacancy announcements and follow the instructions.


Information on House committees is available on

Additional information is available on the Office of the Clerk's website.

Congressional Record

Starting with the year 1995, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on

Starting with the year 1994, the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress is available on the Government Publishing Office's govinfo website.

Contact the Clerk

Additional information on the House of Representatives is available from the Clerk, U.S. Capitol, Room H-154, Washington, DC 20515-6601. Phone, 202-225-7000. | Email:


The website has a directory that contains the committee assignment, congressional district, name, phone number, political affiliation, and room number of each Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, as well as the Uniform Resources Locator (URL) that leads to his or her website.

The online "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present," allows visitors to search for Members of Congress—past and present—by first or last name, political affiliation, position, State, or year or Congress.

Present and former Members of Congress have control numbers associated with their records in the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress." Member IDs or "BioGuide IDs" serve as metadata within and legislative documents that the Government Publishing Office publishes.

Find a Representative

A Zip code-based search tool is available on for locating a representative.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The Office of the Clerk has posted answers to general legislative questions and to more specific questions related to members and committees.


The Office of the Clerk's website has a short glossary for children. has a glossary of terms for readers of congressional records. features a glossary of records management terms.

The "Statement of Disbursements" is a quarterly public report of all receipts and expenditures for U.S. House of Representatives committees, leadership, Members, and officers and offices. To help the general public read this report, maintains an online glossary.


The House of Representative's "History, Art and Archives" website features resources and a trove of information, including online collections, exhibitions, publications, and records. | Email:

In 2015, the "History, Art & Archives" team presented 10 favorite historical highlights and blog posts. Its selection had an eclectic character and includes highlights on a lavaliere of diamonds, the protective power of a thrice-folded newspaper, the House gym, an amendment to abolish the U.S. Senate, national weather forecasts, possums, dueling in the House, hunting dogs on the floor, a titanic story of love and courage, and a very kissable man.

Learning About the House

The Office of the Clerk's website features educational and entertaining information on the legislative branch of the Government for students of all ages. Its "Kids in the House" site explains the role of the House of Representatives, describes the legislative process, and covers House history.

Adults seeking to learn about commissions, committees, House history, House leadership, Representatives, rules, or a Representative's schedule may benefit from "The House Explained" section on

Member Profiles

The "Members of the U.S. Congress" database contains profiles for Representatives who have held office since 1973 or were still serving in the 93d Congress. Users of the database can filter profiles by chamber, Congress, political affiliation, and State or U.S. Territory. A Member profile includes the following: dates of service, district number and State, party affiliation, and a picture when available, as well as a link to the Member's entry in the "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–Present" and a link to remarks made in the "Congressional Record." A profile also includes the list of legislation that the Member sponsored and cosponsored.

The Office of the Clerk's website also maintains a database of Member profiles.

Most-Viewed Bills

The top ten most-viewed bills list is compiled each Monday and posted on the website.

Oath of Office

The constitutional oath of office requires each Member of Congress to swear or affirm that he or she will support and defend the U.S. Constitution against foreign and domestic enemies; bear faith and allegiance to the Constitution; take this obligation freely, with neither mental reservation nor purpose of evasion; and discharge the duties of the office well and faithfully.

Party Seats / Vacancies

The Office of the Clerk's "House at a Glance" page keeps a tally of the number of Democratic, Independent, Libertarian, Republican, and vacant seats in the House of Representatives.

People Search

The "History, Art, and Archives" section on the website has a versatile tool that allows users to search a comprehensive database containing biographical information on Members of the House of Representatives and on nonmember officers like chaplains, clerks, parliamentarians, sergeants at arms, and others.


The Congressional Directory, Rules and Manual of the House of Representatives, and telephone directory for the House of Representatives are available from the Government Publishing Office's bookstore. Phone, 202-512-0132. | Email:


The House's schedule and related resources are available in the "Legislative Activity" section on

Site Map features a site map that allows visitors to look for a specific topic or to browse content that aligns with their interests.


The Office of the Clerk posts recent resignations, deaths, and other separations from the House of Representatives on its "Current Vacancies" web page. Vacancies are grouped according to congressional session, and the page includes the results of recent special elections that have been held to fill vacancies.